A high-fat high-sucrose diet affects the long-term metabolic fate of grape proanthocyanidins in rats
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Polyphenol metabolites are key mediators of the biological activities of polyphenols. This study aimed to evaluate the long-term effects of a high-fat high-sucrose (HFHS) diet on the metabolism of proanthocyanidins from grape seed extract (GSE).
Adult female Wistar–Kyoto rats were fed a standard (STD) or HFHS diet supplemented or not with GSE for 16 weeks. PA metabolites were determined by targeted HPLC–MS/MS analysis.
A lower concentration of total microbial-derived PA metabolites was present in urine and the aqueous fraction of faeces in the HFHS + GSE group than in the STD + GSE group. In contrast, a tendency towards the formation of conjugated (epi)catechin metabolites in the HFHS + GSE group was observed.
These results show that a HFHS diet significantly modifies PA metabolism, probably via: (1) a shift in microbial communities not counteracted by the polyphenols themselves; and (2) an up-regulation of hepatic enzymes.
KeywordsPolyphenols Proanthocyanidins High-fat high-sucrose diet Bioavailability Metabolites
Grape seed extract
High-fat high-sucrose diet
Multiple reaction monitoring
Language revision by Christopher Evans is appreciated. This research was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (Grants: AGL2009-12374-C03-01, -02 and -03; and AGL2013-49079-C2-1, 2 and -R, and through a doctoral fellowship to L.M.). The Panamanian Government (SENACYT/IFARHU) awarded a graduate fellowship to E.M.-T. The ISCIII is acknowledged for a “Sara Borrell” postdoctoral contract to J.P.-J. (CD09/00068). The funding sources did not have any role in the study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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