A high-fat high-sucrose diet affects the long-term metabolic fate of grape proanthocyanidins in rats
- 492 Downloads
Polyphenol metabolites are key mediators of the biological activities of polyphenols. This study aimed to evaluate the long-term effects of a high-fat high-sucrose (HFHS) diet on the metabolism of proanthocyanidins from grape seed extract (GSE).
Adult female Wistar–Kyoto rats were fed a standard (STD) or HFHS diet supplemented or not with GSE for 16 weeks. PA metabolites were determined by targeted HPLC–MS/MS analysis.
A lower concentration of total microbial-derived PA metabolites was present in urine and the aqueous fraction of faeces in the HFHS + GSE group than in the STD + GSE group. In contrast, a tendency towards the formation of conjugated (epi)catechin metabolites in the HFHS + GSE group was observed.
These results show that a HFHS diet significantly modifies PA metabolism, probably via: (1) a shift in microbial communities not counteracted by the polyphenols themselves; and (2) an up-regulation of hepatic enzymes.
KeywordsPolyphenols Proanthocyanidins High-fat high-sucrose diet Bioavailability Metabolites
Grape seed extract
High-fat high-sucrose diet
Multiple reaction monitoring
Language revision by Christopher Evans is appreciated. This research was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (Grants: AGL2009-12374-C03-01, -02 and -03; and AGL2013-49079-C2-1, 2 and -R, and through a doctoral fellowship to L.M.). The Panamanian Government (SENACYT/IFARHU) awarded a graduate fellowship to E.M.-T. The ISCIII is acknowledged for a “Sara Borrell” postdoctoral contract to J.P.-J. (CD09/00068). The funding sources did not have any role in the study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 1.Alberti KGMM, Eckel RH, Grundy SM, Zimmet PZ, Cleeman JI, Donato KA, Fruchart JC, James PT, Loria CM, Smith SC (2009) Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the international diabetes federation task force on epidemiology and prevention; National heart, lung, and blood institute; American heart association; World heart federation; International atherosclerosis society; and international association for the study of obesity. Circulation 120:1640–1645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 18.Tulipani S, Martínez-Huélamo M, Rotchés M, Estruch R, Escribano E, Andrés-Lacueva C, Illán M, Lamuela-Raventós RM (2012) Oil matrix effects on plasma exposure and urinary excretion of phenolic compounds from tomato sauces: evidence from a human pilot study. Food Chem 30:581–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 20.Aoun M, Michel F, Fouret G, Jullien M, Wrutniak-Cabello C, Ramos J, Cristol JP, Coudray C, Carbonneau MA, Feillet-Coudray C (2010) A polyphenol extract modifies quantity but not quality of liver fatty acid content in high-fat-high-sucrose diet-fed rats: possible implication of the sirtuin pathway. Br J Nutr 104:1760–1770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 23.Dudonné S, Varin TV, Anhê FF, Dubé P, Roy D, Pilon G, Marette A, Levy E, Jacquot C, Urdaci M et al (2015) Modulatory effects of a cranberry extract co-supplementation with Bacillus subtilis CU1 probiotic on phenolic compounds bioavailability and gut microbiota composition in high-fat diet-fed mice. PharmaNutrition 3:89–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 29.Vitaglione p, Barone Lumaga R, Ferracane R, Sellitto S, Morelló JR, Requnat Miranda J, Shimoni E, Fogliano V (2012) Human bioavailability of flavanols and phenolic acids from cocoa-nut creams enriched with free or microencapsulated cocoa polyphenols. Br J Nutr 28:1832–1843Google Scholar
- 46.Osabe M, Sugatani J, Fukuyama T, Ikushiro S, Ikari A, Miwa M (2008) Expression of hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 and 1A6 correlated with increased expression of the nuclear constitutive androstane receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha in male rats fed a high-fat and high-sucrose diet. Drug Metab Dispos 36:294–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 48.Knaze V, Zamora-Ros R, Luján-Barroso L, Romieu I, Scalbert A, Slimani N, Riboli E, Van Rossum CTM, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Trichopulou A et al (2012) Intake estimation of total and individual flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins and theaflavins, their food sources and determinants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Br J Nutr 28:1095–1108CrossRefGoogle Scholar