Metabolic syndrome and dietary patterns: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies
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Lifestyle is linked to the risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS); however, its relationship with dietary patterns remains unclear. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to analyse the association of a posteriori dietary patterns with the metabolic syndrome.
The PubMed, CINAHL and Scopus databases were searched for epidemiological studies of dietary patterns and MetS. The association between dietary patterns and MetS was estimated using a random-effects meta-analysis with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs).
A total of 28 cross-sectional studies and three cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis. In a comparison of the highest to the lowest category of prudent/healthy dietary patterns, the pooled odds ratio (OR) for MetS was 0.83 (95 % CI 0.76, 0.90; P for heterogeneity =0.0; and I 2 = 72.1 %) in cross-sectional studies, and the pooled relative risk (RR) for MetS in cohort studies was 0.91 (95 % CI 0.68, 1.21; P for heterogeneity =0.005; I 2 = 81.1 %). The pooled OR for MetS in a comparison of the highest to the lowest category of Western dietary patterns was 1.28 (95 % CI 1.17, 1.40; P for heterogeneity =0.0; and I 2 = 72.0 %) in cross-sectional studies, and the RR was 0.96 (95 % CI 0.53, 1.73; P for heterogeneity =0.102; I 2 = 62.6 %) in cohort studies.
The results from cross-sectional studies showed that a prudent/healthy pattern is associated with a lower prevalence of MetS, whereas a Western/unhealthy is associated with an increased risk for MetS. Additional prospective studies are needed to confirm the association between dietary patterns and MetS.
KeywordsDietary patterns Metabolic syndrome Systematic review Meta-analysis
Míriam Rodríguez-Monforte and Gemma Flores-Mateo formulated the research question, designed the study and carried it out, and analysed the data. Míriam Rodríguez-Monforte and Emília Sánchez discussed the results. Míriam Rodríguez-Monforte, Gemma Flores-Mateo, Emília Sánchez, Francisco Barrio and Bernardo Costa wrote the paper. All authors contributed to the revision of the manuscript and read and approved the final version.
The preparation of the manuscript was supported by the IDIAP Jordi Gol Foundation.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors have no relevant interests to declare.
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