A PUFA-rich diet improves fat oxidation following saturated fat-rich meal
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To determine substrate oxidation responses to saturated fatty acid (SFA)-rich meals before and after a 7-day polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich diet versus control diet.
Twenty-six, normal-weight, adults were randomly assigned to either PUFA or control diet. Following a 3-day lead-in diet, participants completed the pre-diet visit where anthropometrics and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were measured, and two SFA-rich HF meals (breakfast and lunch) were consumed. Indirect calorimetry was used to determine fat oxidation (Fox) and energy expenditure (EE) for 4 h after each meal. Participants then consumed a PUFA-rich diet (50 % carbohydrate, 15 % protein, 35 % fat, of which 21 % of total energy was PUFA) or control diet (50 % carbohydrate, 15 % protein, 35 % fat, of which 7 % of total energy was PUFA) for the next 7 days. Following the 7-day diet, participants completed the post-diet visit.
From pre- to post-PUFA-rich diet, there was no change in RMR (16.3 ± 0.8 vs. 16.4 ± 0.8 kcal/20 min) or in incremental area under the curve for EE (118.9 ± 20.6–126.9 ± 14.1 kcal/8h, ns). Fasting respiratory exchange ratio increased from pre- to post-PUFA-rich diet only (0.83 ± 0.1–0.86 ± 0.1, p < 0.05). The postprandial change in Fox increased from pre- to post-visit in PUFA-rich diet (0.03 ± 0.1–0.23 ± 0.1 g/15 min for cumulative Fox; p < 0.05), whereas controls showed no change.
Adopting a PUFA-rich diet initiates greater fat oxidation after eating occasional high SFA meals compared to a control diet, an effect achieved in 7 days.
KeywordsPolyunsaturated fatty acid Saturated fatty acid High fat Metabolism
This research project was funded through the California Walnut Commission.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
This study involving humans have been approved by the appropriate ethics committee and have therefore been performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments. All persons gave their informed consent prior to their inclusion in the study. Further, any details that may have disclosed the identity of the participants involved in the study were omitted.
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