European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 56, Issue 3, pp 1169–1177 | Cite as

Association between dietary carbohydrate intake, glycemic index and glycemic load, and risk of gastric cancer

  • Yao Ye
  • Yihua WuEmail author
  • Jinming Xu
  • Kefeng Ding
  • Xiaoyun Shan
  • Dajing XiaEmail author
Original Contribution



The association between dietary carbohydrate intake, glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL), and risk of gastric cancer (GC) has been investigated by many studies. However, the results of these studies were controversial. The aim of our study was to systematically assess this issue.


PUBMED and EMBASE were searched up to March 2015, and either a fixed- or a random-effects model was adopted to estimate overall relative risks (RRs). Dose–response, meta-regression, subgroup, and publication bias analyses were applied.


Twenty-six studies with approximately 540,000 participants were finally included in this meta-analysis. High level of dietary carbohydrate intake (pooled RR 1.17, 95 % CI 0.91–1.50), GI (pooled RR 1.17, 95 % CI 0.80–1.69), and GL (pooled RR 1.06, 95 % CI 0.90–1.26) were all nonsignificantly associated with incidence of GC. In addition, no significant dose–response relationship was observed between carbohydrate intake, GI and GL, and the risk of GC. However, further subgroup analyses based on gender and geographic region suggested a significant association between higher carbohydrate intake (pooled RR 1.52, 95 % CI 1.10–2.08), GL (pooled RR 1.41, 95 % CI 1.04–1.92), and GC risk in males subgroup, and between higher carbohydrate intake (pooled RR 1.69, 95 % CI 1.36–2.09) and GC risk in Asian studies.


No significant association was found between dietary carbohydrate intake, GI and GL, and risk of GC. However, significantly positive association was observed in the males subgroup and Asian studies.


Carbohydrate intake Glycemic index Glycemic load Gastric cancer 



The corresponding author (Drs. Yihua Wu and Dajing Xia) have the right to grant on behalf of all authors and do grant on behalf of all authors. Dr. Dajing Xia contributed to conception and design of the study; Drs. Yihua Wu and Yao Ye contributed to conception, statistical analysis, and editing of the manuscript; Dr. Kefeng Ding contributed to statistical analysis and the data acquisition, analysis; Drs. Jinming Xu and Xiaoyun Shan contributed to interpretation of the data. All authors commented on drafts of the paper and have approved the final draft of the manuscript.


The work was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 81172692 and No. 81373036), Zhejiang Provincial Department of Science and Technology (Grant No. 2013C14016), and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation funded project (Grant No. 419000-X91301).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

394_2016_1166_MOESM1_ESM.docx (26 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 26 kb)
394_2016_1166_MOESM2_ESM.tif (6.8 mb)
Supplementary material 2 (TIFF 6947 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ToxicologyZhejiang University School of Public HealthHangzhouChina
  2. 2.Department of Oncology, Second Affiliated HospitalZhejiang University College of MedicineHangzhouChina
  3. 3.Department of Epidemiology and Health StatisticsZhejiang University School of Public HealthHangzhouChina
  4. 4.Jinhua Central HospitalJinhua Hospital of Zhejiang UniversityJinhuaChina
  5. 5.Zhejiang University School of Public HealthHangzhouChina

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