European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 56, Issue 3, pp 1135–1147 | Cite as

Down-regulation of NF-κB expression by n-3 fatty acid-rich linseed oil is modulated by PPARγ activation, eicosanoid cascade and secretion of cytokines by macrophages in rats fed partially hydrogenated vegetable fat

  • Y. Poorna Chandra Rao
  • B. R. LokeshEmail author
Original Contribution



The industrially produced partially hydrogenated vegetable fat (PHVF) contains trans fatty acid mostly comprising of elaidic acid (18:1 ∆9t). PHVF is used as a cooking medium in Southeast Asian countries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of dietary PHVF on inflammatory mediators and possible ameliorative effects of n-3 fatty acid (α-linolenic acid, ALA)-rich linseed oil (LSO) on the inflammatory mediators.


Male Wistar weaning rats were fed AIN-93-purified diet supplemented with one of the following lipids for 60 days, groundnut oil (GNO, 10 wt%), PHVF (10 wt%), LSO (10 wt%), PHVF blended with LSO at 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 wt% levels. The final fat level in the diet was maintained at 10 wt%.


The macrophages from rats fed PHVF showed higher levels of total cholesterol and free cholesterol as compared to those from rats fed GNO and LSO. Macrophages from rats fed PHVF down-regulated the expression of PPARγ and up-regulated the expressions of cytosolic phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase-2, 5-lipoxygenase and nuclear factor-kappa B p65. The macrophages from rats fed PHVF secreted higher levels of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and cytokines. The rats fed PHVF blended with LSO at incremental amounts showed a significant reduction in the expressions of pro-inflammatory markers in dose-dependent manner.


Detrimental effects of dietary PHVF in enhancing pro-inflammatory agents in rats could be significantly reduced by providing ALA (n-3 PUFA)-rich LSO.


Partially hydrogenated vegetable fat Elaidic acid Linseed oil α-Linolenic acid Macrophages Inflammatory mediators 


6-Keto PGF

6-Keto prostaglandin F


α-Linolenic acid




Elaidic acid


Groundnut oil






Linseed oil


Leukotriene B4


Leukotriene C4

NF-κB p65

Nuclear factor-kappa B p65


Prostaglandin E2


Partially hydrogenated vegetable fat


Cytosolic phospholipase2


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma


Polyunsaturated fatty acids


Reactive oxygen species


Trans fatty acids


Tumor necrosis factor alpha


Thromboxane B2



The authors thank Prof. Ram Rajasekharan, Head, Department of Lipid Science, and Director, CFTRI, Mysore, India, for his keen interest, encouragement and support for this work. Mr. YPC. Rao acknowledges Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India, for the award of Senior Research Fellowship.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

394_2016_1163_MOESM1_ESM.docx (21 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 21 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Lipid ScienceCSIR- Central Food Technological Research InstituteMysuruIndia

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