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European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 56, Issue 3, pp 1135–1147 | Cite as

Down-regulation of NF-κB expression by n-3 fatty acid-rich linseed oil is modulated by PPARγ activation, eicosanoid cascade and secretion of cytokines by macrophages in rats fed partially hydrogenated vegetable fat

  • Y. Poorna Chandra Rao
  • B. R. LokeshEmail author
Original Contribution

Abstract

Purpose

The industrially produced partially hydrogenated vegetable fat (PHVF) contains trans fatty acid mostly comprising of elaidic acid (18:1 ∆9t). PHVF is used as a cooking medium in Southeast Asian countries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of dietary PHVF on inflammatory mediators and possible ameliorative effects of n-3 fatty acid (α-linolenic acid, ALA)-rich linseed oil (LSO) on the inflammatory mediators.

Methods

Male Wistar weaning rats were fed AIN-93-purified diet supplemented with one of the following lipids for 60 days, groundnut oil (GNO, 10 wt%), PHVF (10 wt%), LSO (10 wt%), PHVF blended with LSO at 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 wt% levels. The final fat level in the diet was maintained at 10 wt%.

Results

The macrophages from rats fed PHVF showed higher levels of total cholesterol and free cholesterol as compared to those from rats fed GNO and LSO. Macrophages from rats fed PHVF down-regulated the expression of PPARγ and up-regulated the expressions of cytosolic phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase-2, 5-lipoxygenase and nuclear factor-kappa B p65. The macrophages from rats fed PHVF secreted higher levels of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and cytokines. The rats fed PHVF blended with LSO at incremental amounts showed a significant reduction in the expressions of pro-inflammatory markers in dose-dependent manner.

Conclusion

Detrimental effects of dietary PHVF in enhancing pro-inflammatory agents in rats could be significantly reduced by providing ALA (n-3 PUFA)-rich LSO.

Keywords

Partially hydrogenated vegetable fat Elaidic acid Linseed oil α-Linolenic acid Macrophages Inflammatory mediators 

Abbreviations

6-Keto PGF

6-Keto prostaglandin F

ALA

α-Linolenic acid

COX-2

Cyclooxygenase-2

EA

Elaidic acid

GNO

Groundnut oil

LPS

Lipopolysaccharide

5-LOX

5-Lipoxygenase

LSO

Linseed oil

LTB4

Leukotriene B4

LTC4

Leukotriene C4

NF-κB p65

Nuclear factor-kappa B p65

PGE2

Prostaglandin E2

PHVF

Partially hydrogenated vegetable fat

cPLA2

Cytosolic phospholipase2

PPARγ

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

PUFA

Polyunsaturated fatty acids

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

TFA

Trans fatty acids

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor alpha

TXB2

Thromboxane B2

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Prof. Ram Rajasekharan, Head, Department of Lipid Science, and Director, CFTRI, Mysore, India, for his keen interest, encouragement and support for this work. Mr. YPC. Rao acknowledges Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India, for the award of Senior Research Fellowship.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

394_2016_1163_MOESM1_ESM.docx (21 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 21 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Lipid ScienceCSIR- Central Food Technological Research InstituteMysuruIndia

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