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European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 56, Issue 3, pp 1123–1133 | Cite as

Fruit and vegetable intake and vitamin C transporter gene (SLC23A2) polymorphisms in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

  • Delphine CasabonneEmail author
  • Esther Gracia
  • Ana Espinosa
  • Mariona Bustamante
  • Yolanda Benavente
  • Claudia Robles
  • Laura Costas
  • Esther Alonso
  • Eva Gonzalez-Barca
  • Adonina Tardón
  • Trinidad Dierssen-Sotos
  • Eva Gimeno Vázquez
  • Marta Aymerich
  • Elies Campo
  • José J. Jiménez-Moleón
  • Rafael Marcos-Gragera
  • Gemma Castaño-Vinyals
  • Nuria Aragones
  • Marina Pollan
  • Manolis Kogevinas
  • Carmen Urtiaga
  • Pilar Amiano
  • Victor Moreno
  • Silvia de Sanjose
Original Contribution

Abstract

Purpose

There is currently no convincing epidemiological evidence that fruit and vegetable consumption, the primary source of vitamin C, plays a role in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) aetiology. We hypothesized that variations in vitamin C dietary intake as well as in genetic variability in vitamin C transporter gene SLC23A2 could explain some inconsistencies in the literature.

Methods

Fruit/vegetable/vitamin C consumption from food frequency questionnaires and six low-penetrance genetic susceptibility polymorphisms in vitamin C transporter gene SLC23A2 (rs1715364, rs6133175, rs1776948, rs6139587, rs369270 and rs6052937) were examined in 434 CLL cases and 1257 randomly selected controls from primary care centres with genetic data of whom 275 cases and 1094 controls having both diet and genetic information. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI).

Results

CLL patients were more likely to have a higher fruit consumption than controls (highest versus lowest quartile in g/day OR: 1.48; 95 % CI: 1.00 to 2.18; P = 0.03), whereas no associations were found with vegetable or total vitamin C intake. Based on log-additive models, rs6133175_A > G (OR: 1.19, 95 % CI: 1.00 to 1.41; P = 0.05) and rs1776948_T > A (OR: 1.20; 95 %CI: 1.01 to 1.41; P = 0.04) were associated with CLL. The haplogenotype analysis (rs1715364, rs6133175) supported the genotype results. No gene–diet interactions in CLL remained statistically significant after correction for multiple testing.

Conclusions

These data suggest that both fruit intake and genetic marker in SLC23A2 may play an independent role in CLL biology.

Keywords

Fruit intake Vegetable intake Vitamin C intake SLC23A2 Polymorphism Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank all the subjects for their contribution to the study and the MCC-Spain-CLL collaborators from: Catalan Institute of Oncologia, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain (Teresa Alonso, Vanesa Camon, Eva Domingo-Domenech, Dolores Dot, Anna Esteban, Elisabeth Guinó, Yolanda Florencia, Joellen Klaustermeier, Santi Mercadal, Ana Oliveira, Isabel Padrol, Paloma Quesada, Victor Moreno, Josep Sarra, Yasmin Sabaté, Marleny Vergara); Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiolog (CREAL), Barcelona, Spain (Mireia García, Cecília Persavento); Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, Spain (Cristina Capdevila Lozar, Ainara Expósito, Silvia Martin Román, Amparo Muñoz, Yolanda Torralba); Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain (Eugènia Abella, Estela Carrasco, Judith Cirac, Francesc Garcia, Antonio Salar); Hospital Bellvitge, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain (Esmeralda de la Banda); Institut de Prestacions d’Assistència Mèdica al Personal Municipal (PAMEM) & Centros de Atención Primaria (CAP), Barcelona, Spain (Jesús Almeda, Marifé Alvarez Rodriguez, Alex Bassa Massanas, Albert Boada Valmaseda, Enric Duran, Olga Gonzalez Ferrer, Clara Izard, Manoli Liceran, Carmen López, Josep Manuel Benítez, Dolors Petitbó, Angelina Potrony, Sònia Sarret, Laura Sebastián, Josep M. Vilaseca); Cantabria group (Inés Gómez-Acebo, Pilar González Echezarreta, Maria del Mar González Martínez, Javier Llorca, Luis Mariano López López, Almudena de la Pedraja Pavón, Paula Picón Sedano); Instituto Universitario de Oncología, Universidad de Oviedo, Asturias, Spain (Cristina Arias, Guillermo Fernández, María José Fernández González, Ana Fernández Somoano, Carlos López-Otín, Ana Souto); Servicio de Salud del Principado de Asturias, SESPA, Asturias, Spain (Enrique Colado, Begoña Martínez-Argüelles, Manuel Rivas del Fresno, Marta María Rodríguez-Suárez); Departemento de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria de Granada, Hospitales Universitarios de Granada/Universidad de Granada (Jose Juan Jiménez-Moleón, Aurora Bueno Cavanillas, Obdulia Moreno Abril); Ciber de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBEResp) (Rocío Olmedo Requena); Servicio de Hematología, Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves, José Luis Gastón Morata Centro de Salud Zaidín Sur, Servicio Andaluz de Salud (Paloma García-Martín, Eva Garrido Morales); Unitat d’Epidemiologia i Registre de Cancer de Girona (Maria Buxo, M Carme Carmona-Garcia, Angel Izquierdo, Rafael Marcos-Gragera, Patricia Martí Bargalló, Gemma Osca-Gelis, Montse Puig-Vives, Rocio Rodriguez Romanos, Esther Rodriguez Sanchez, Marc Saez, Carlota Torner Galindo, Loreto Vilardell); Hospital Universitari de Girona Dr. Josep Trueta (Elena Alvarez Castaño, Ignacio Blanco, Rosa Coll, David Gallardo, Josep Maria Roncero, Luis Miguel Alonso Ruano); Hospital Santa Caterina (Rocio Jurado Perez, Isaura Marcé Pujol, Joan Melendez Rusiñol); CAP de Santa Clara (Conxa Bou); CAP de Angles (Gabriel Coll de Tuero, Alba Coll Negre).

Financial support

This work was supported by the “Acción Transversal del Cancer”, approved on the Spanish Ministry Council on the 11th October 2007, by the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spanish Government) (grants PI08/1770, PI08/0533, PI08/1359, PS09/00773-Cantabria, PI11/01810, PI11/02213, RCESP C03/09, RTICESP C03/10, RTIC RD06/0020/0095, RTIC RD12/0036/0056, Rio Hortega CM13/00232, SV-09-CLINIC-1 and CIBERESP), by the Fundación Marques de Valdecilla (API 10/09), by Obra Social CAJASTUR (SV-CAJASTUR-1), by the Recercaixa (2010ACUP 00310), by the Spanish Association Against Cancer (AECC) Scientific Foundation and by the Agència de Gestió d’Ajuts Universitaris i de Recerca (AGAUR)–Generalitat de Catalunya (Catalonian Government) (grants AGAUR 2009SGR1026, 2014SGR756 and 2009SGR1465). The ICGC CLL-Genome Project is funded by Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO) through the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII) and Red Temática de Investigación del Cáncer (RTIC RD12/0036/0036) del ISCIII. Sample collection and storage was partially supported by the Instituto de Salud Carlos III FEDER (RD09/0076/00036), Xarxa de Bancs de Tumors de Catalunya sponsored by Pla Director d’Oncologia de Catalunya (XBTC).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors have no conflict of interest.

Ethical considerations

Ethical approval was granted for each participating centre of the study. All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000. Informed written consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study. None of the sources of funding had any influence over the design, execution, analyses, interpretation or reporting of data of the study.

Supplementary material

394_2016_1162_MOESM1_ESM.docx (134 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 134 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Delphine Casabonne
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Esther Gracia
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Ana Espinosa
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Mariona Bustamante
    • 2
    • 3
    • 5
    • 6
  • Yolanda Benavente
    • 1
    • 2
  • Claudia Robles
    • 1
  • Laura Costas
    • 1
    • 2
  • Esther Alonso
    • 7
  • Eva Gonzalez-Barca
    • 8
  • Adonina Tardón
    • 2
    • 9
  • Trinidad Dierssen-Sotos
    • 2
    • 10
  • Eva Gimeno Vázquez
    • 11
    • 12
  • Marta Aymerich
    • 13
  • Elies Campo
    • 13
  • José J. Jiménez-Moleón
    • 2
    • 14
    • 15
  • Rafael Marcos-Gragera
    • 16
  • Gemma Castaño-Vinyals
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Nuria Aragones
    • 2
    • 17
    • 18
  • Marina Pollan
    • 2
    • 17
    • 18
  • Manolis Kogevinas
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    • 19
  • Carmen Urtiaga
    • 20
  • Pilar Amiano
    • 2
    • 21
  • Victor Moreno
    • 2
    • 22
  • Silvia de Sanjose
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Unit of Infections and Cancer (UNIC), Cancer Epidemiology Research Programme, IDIBELLInstitut Català d’OncologiaL’Hospitalet De Llobregat, BarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP)MadridSpain
  3. 3.Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL)BarcelonaSpain
  4. 4.Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF)BarcelonaSpain
  5. 5.Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM)BarcelonaSpain
  6. 6.Center for Genomic Regulation (CRG)BarcelonaSpain
  7. 7.Department of PathologyHospital Universitari de BellvitgeL’Hospitalet De Llobregat, BarcelonaSpain
  8. 8.Hematology, IDIBELLInstitut Català d’ OncologiaL’ Hospitalet De Llobregat, BarcelonaSpain
  9. 9.Oncology Institute (IUOPA)University of OviedoOviedoAustria
  10. 10.Faculty of MedicineUniversity of Cantabria- IDIVALSantanderSpain
  11. 11.Department of Clinical HematologyHospital del MarBarcelonaSpain
  12. 12.Grup de Recerca Aplicada en Neoplasies Hematològiques-PSMARBarcelonaSpain
  13. 13.Hematopathology Unit, Pathology Department, Hospital ClínicUniversity of Barcelona, Institute of Biomedical Research August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS)BarcelonaSpain
  14. 14.Department of Preventive Medicine and Public HealthUniversity of GranadaGranadaSpain
  15. 15.Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria de GranadaServicio Andaluz de Salud/Universidad de GranadaGranadaSpain
  16. 16.Epidemiology Unit and Girona Cancer Registry, Oncology Coordination Plan, Department of HealthAutonomous Government of Catalonia, Catalan Institute of Oncology, Girona Biomedical Research Institute (IdiBGi)GironaSpain
  17. 17.National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of HealthMadridSpain
  18. 18.Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria (IIS)Puerta De Hierro MajadahondaSpain
  19. 19.National School of Public HealthAthensGreece
  20. 20.Public Health Division of GipuzkoaBasque Health DepartmentSan SebastianSpain
  21. 21.Public Health Division of Gipuzkoa, BioDonostia Research InstituteBasque Health DepartmentSan SebastianSpain
  22. 22.Cancer Prevention and Control Program, IDIBELL, Institut Català d’OncologiaUniversity of BarcelonaL’Hospitalet De Llobregat, BarcelonaSpain

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