European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 56, Issue 3, pp 1053–1062 | Cite as

Effect of meal composition on postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1, insulin, glucagon, C-peptide, and glucose responses in overweight/obese subjects

  • Meena ShahEmail author
  • Brian Franklin
  • Beverley Adams-Huet
  • Joel Mitchell
  • Brooke Bouza
  • Lyn Dart
  • Melody Phillips
Original Contribution



Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an incretin hormone, is released in response to food intake. It is unclear how meals high in protein (HP) and monounsaturated fat (HMF) affect GLP-1 response.


To examine the effect of a HP versus a HMF meal on GLP-1 response.


Twenty-four overweight/obese participants consumed two meals (HP: 31.9 % energy from protein; HMF: 35.2 % fat and 20.7 % monounsaturated fat) in a random order. Both meals contained the same energy and carbohydrate content. GLP-1, insulin, glucagon, C-peptide, and glucose were assessed from blood drawn in the fasting and postprandial states. The effect of meal condition on hormone and glucose responses and appetite ratings were assessed by repeated measures analysis.


Statistically significant (p < 0.01) time by meal condition effect was observed on active GLP-1, total GLP-1, insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon, but not glucose (p = 0.83). Area under the curve was significantly higher during the HP versus the HMF meal conditions for active GLP-1 (23.7 %; p = 0.0007), total GLP-1 (12.2 %; p < 0.0001), insulin (54.4 %; p < 0.0001), C-peptide (14.8 %; p < 0.0001), and glucagon (40.7 %; p < 0.0001). Blood glucose was not different between the HP versus HMF conditions (−4.8 %; p = 0.11). Insulin sensitivity was higher during the HMF versus HP conditions (Matsuda index mean difference: 16.3 %; p = 0.007). Appetite ratings were not different by meal condition.


GLP-1 and insulin responses were higher during the HP condition. However, no difference was found in blood glucose between conditions, and insulin sensitivity was higher during the HMF condition, indicating that a HMF meal may be optimal at regulating blood glucose in overweight/obese individuals without type 2 diabetes.


High-monounsaturated fat meal High-protein meal Meal composition Glucagon-like peptide-1 Insulin Obesity 



This study was funded by the TCU Invests in Scholarship grant. The authors would like to acknowledge Manall Jaffery, Alex Villanueva, Shane Jenke, Justin Repshas, Leighsa Brace, Henry Aleck, Aaron Caldwell, and Elizabeth Sanders for helping with some data collection and/or blood analysis.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Meena Shah
    • 1
    Email author
  • Brian Franklin
    • 1
  • Beverley Adams-Huet
    • 3
  • Joel Mitchell
    • 1
  • Brooke Bouza
    • 1
  • Lyn Dart
    • 2
  • Melody Phillips
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of KinesiologyTexas Christian UniversityFort WorthUSA
  2. 2.Department of Nutritional SciencesTexas Christian UniversityFort WorthUSA
  3. 3.Department of Clinical SciencesUniversity of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at DallasDallasUSA

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