European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 56, Issue 3, pp 1025–1036 | Cite as

Do dry roasting, lightly salting nuts affect their cardioprotective properties and acceptability?

  • Siew Ling Tey
  • Terryn Robinson
  • Andrew R. Gray
  • Alexandra W. Chisholm
  • Rachel Clare BrownEmail author
Original Contribution



Previous studies have reported improvements in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors with the consumption of raw nuts. However, around one-third of nuts consumed are roasted and salted. Thus, it is important to determine whether roasting and salting nuts affect the health benefits observed with raw nuts. This study aimed to compare the effects of consuming two different forms of hazelnuts on cardiovascular risk factors and acceptance.


Using a randomised crossover design, 72 participants were asked to consume 30 g/day of either raw or dry roasted, lightly salted hazelnuts for 28 days each. CVD risk factors were measured at the beginning and end of each treatment period. “Desire to consume” and “overall liking” for both forms of hazelnuts were assessed daily using a 150-mm visual analogue scale.


Body composition, blood pressure, plasma total and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1 and B100, glucose and α-tocopherol concentrations did not differ between forms of hazelnuts (all P ≥ 0.054). High-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (P = 0.037) and triacylglycerol (P < 0.001) concentrations were significantly lower following the consumption of dry roasted, lightly salted hazelnuts when compared to the raw hazelnuts. Compared with baseline, consuming both forms of hazelnuts significantly improved HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1 concentrations, total-C/HDL-C ratio, and systolic blood pressure without significantly changing body composition. Acceptance ratings did not differ between forms of hazelnuts and remained high throughout the study.


Dry roasting and lightly salting nuts do not appear to negate the cardioprotective effects observed with raw nut consumption, and both forms of nuts are resistant to monotony. Public health messages could be extended to include dry roasted and lightly salted nuts as part of a heart healthy diet.


Hazelnuts Roasting Salting Cardiovascular disease Acceptance 



We would like to thank the participants for their commitment and enthusiasm in participating in this study.

Authors’ contribution

The authors’ responsibilities were as follows—S.L.T., T.R., A.R.G., A.W.C. and R.C.B. designed the study; T.R. conducted the research; S.L.T., A.W.C. and R.C.B. supervised the data collection; S.L.T. and A.R.G. analysed the data; S.L.T. and R.C.B. wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

None of the authors had any personal or financial conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Clinical Nutrition Research CentreSingapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, A*STARSingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Department of Human NutritionUniversity of OtagoDunedinNew Zealand
  3. 3.Department of Preventive and Social MedicineUniversity of OtagoDunedinNew Zealand

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