Resistant starch for modulation of gut microbiota: Promising adjuvant therapy for chronic kidney disease patients?
- 1k Downloads
The gut microbiota has been extensively studied in all health science fields because its imbalance is linked to many disorders, such as inflammation and oxidative stress, thereby contributing to cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) complications. Novel therapeutic strategies that aim to reduce the complications caused by this imbalance have increased in recent years. Studies have shown that prebiotic supplementation can beneficially modulate the gut microbiota in CKD patients. Prebiotics consist of non-digestible dietary soluble fiber, which acts as a substrate for the gut microbiota. Resistant starch (RS) is a type of dietary fiber that can reach the large bowel and act as a substrate for microbial fermentation; for these reasons, it has been considered to be a prebiotic. Few studies have analyzed the effects of RS on the gut microbiota in CKD patients. This review discusses recent information about RS and the potential role of the gut microbiota, with a particular emphasis on CKD patients.
KeywordsMicrobiota Gut Uremic toxins Prebiotic Kidney disease
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare there are no conflicts of interest.
- 10.Vaziri ND, Zhao Y-Y, Pahl MV (2015) Altered intestinal microbial flora and impaired epithelial barrier structure and function in CKD: the nature, mechanisms, consequences and potential treatment. Nephrol Dial Transpl. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfv095
- 12.Vaziri ND, Zhao Y-Y, Pahl MV (2015) Altered intestinal microbial flora and impaired epithelial barrier structure and function in CKD: the nature, mechanisms, consequences and potential treatment. Nephrol Dial Transpl Off Publ Eur Dial Transpl Assoc-Eur Ren Assoc. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfv095 Google Scholar
- 14.Topping DL, Clifton PM (2001) Short-chain fatty acids and human colonic function: roles of resistant starch and nonstarch polysaccharides. Physiol Rev 81:1031–1064Google Scholar
- 15.Alimentarius Codex (2010) Guidelines on nutrition labelling CAC/GL 2-1985 as last amended 2010. Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, Secretariat of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
- 16.Englyst HN, Kingman SM, Cummings JH (1992) Classification and measurement of nutritionally important starch fractions. Eur J Clin Nutr 46(Suppl 2):S33–50Google Scholar
- 24.Bird AR, Hayakawa T, Marsono Y et al (2000) Coarse brown rice increases fecal and large bowel short-chain fatty acids and starch but lowers calcium in the large bowel of pigs. J Nutr 130:1780–1787Google Scholar
- 32.Lobley GE, Holtrop G, Bremner DM et al (2013) Impact of short term consumption of diets high in either non-starch polysaccharides or resistant starch in comparison with moderate weight loss on indices of insulin sensitivity in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Nutrients 5:2144–2172. doi: 10.3390/nu5062144 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 52.Kwak JH, Paik JK, Kim HI et al (2012) Dietary treatment with rice containing resistant starch improves markers of endothelial function with reduction of postprandial blood glucose and oxidative stress in patients with prediabetes or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Atherosclerosis 224:457–464. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2012.08.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 65.Worthley DL, Le Leu RK, Whitehall VL et al (2009) A human, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic supplementation: effects on luminal, inflammatory, epigenetic, and epithelial biomarkers of colorectal cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 90:578–586. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.28106 CrossRefGoogle Scholar