European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 56, Issue 2, pp 683–692 | Cite as

Inflammatory potential of diet and all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III Study

  • Nitin ShivappaEmail author
  • Susan E. Steck
  • James R. Hussey
  • Yunsheng Ma
  • James R. Hebert
Original Contribution



Various dietary components have been studied in relation to overall mortality; however, little is known about the relationship between the inflammatory potential of overall diet and mortality.

Materials and methods

We examined the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII) and mortality in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III follow-up study. The DII was computed from baseline dietary intake assessed using 24-h dietary recalls (1988–1994). Mortality was determined from the National Death Index records through 2006. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI). During the follow-up, 2795 deaths were identified, including 1233 due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), and 615 due to cancer, 158 of which were due to digestive-tract cancers.


Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses, adjusting for age, race, diabetes status, hypertension, physical activity, body mass index, poverty index, and smoking, revealed positive associations between higher DII scores and mortality. Comparing subjects in DII tertile 3 versus tertile 1, significant associations were noted for all-cause mortality (HRTertile3vs1 1.34; 95 % CI 1.19–1.51, P trend < 0.0001), CVD mortality (HRTertile3vs1 1.46; 95 % CI 1.18–1.81, P trend = 0.0006), cancer mortality (HRTertile3vs1 1.46; 95 % CI 1.10–1.96, P trend = 0.01), and digestive-tract cancer mortality (HRTertile3vs1 2.10; 95 % CI 1.15–3.84, P trend = 0.03).


These results indicate that a pro-inflammatory diet, as indicated by higher DII scores, was associated with higher risk of all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality.


Dietary inflammatory index Mortality NHANES III 



Drs. Shivappa and Hébert were supported by Grant No. R44DK103377 from the United States National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.

Compliance with ethical standards


Dr. James R. Hébert owns controlling interest in Connecting Health Innovations LLC (CHI), a company planning to license the right to his invention of the dietary inflammatory index (DII) from the University of South Carolina in order to develop computer and smart phone applications for patient counseling and dietary intervention in clinical settings. Dr. Nitin Shivappa is a paid employee of CHI.


  1. 1.
    Keibel A, Singh V, Sharma MC (2009) Inflammation, microenvironment, and the immune system in cancer progression. Curr Pharm Des 15(17):1949–1955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pan MH, Lai CS, Dushenkov S, Ho CT (2009) Modulation of inflammatory genes by natural dietary bioactive compounds. J Agric Food Chem 57(11):4467–4477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Thun MJ, Henley SJ, Gansler T (2004) Inflammation and cancer: an epidemiological perspective. Novartis Found Symp 256:6–21 (discussion 22–28, 49–52, 266–269) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Warnberg J, Gomez-Martinez S, Romeo J, Diaz LE, Marcos A (2009) Nutrition, inflammation, and cognitive function. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1153:164–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chung Y-C, Chang Y-F (2003) Serum interleukin-6 levels reflect the disease status of colorectal cancer. J Surg Oncol 83(4):222–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Terzic J, Grivennikov S, Karin E, Karin M (2010) Inflammation and colon cancer. Gastroenterology 138(6):2101–2114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Toriola AT, Cheng TY, Neuhouser ML, Wener MH, Zheng Y, Brown E, Miller JW, Song X, Beresford SA, Gunter MJ, Caudill MA, Ulrich CM (2013) Biomarkers of inflammation are associated with colorectal cancer risk in women but are not suitable as early detection markers. Int J Cancer 132(11):2648–2658. doi: 10.1002/ijc.27942 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    World Health Organization (2008) The global burden of disease: 2004 update. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Calabro P, Golia E, Yeh ET (2009) CRP and the risk of atherosclerotic events. Semin Immunopathol 31(1):79–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lloyd-Jones D, Adams R, Carnethon M, De Simone G, Ferguson TB, Flegal K, Ford E, Furie K, Go A, Greenlund K, Haase N, Hailpern S, Ho M, Howard V, Kissela B, Kittner S, Lackland D, Lisabeth L, Marelli A, McDermott M, Meigs J, Mozaffarian D, Nichol G, O’Donnell C, Roger V, Rosamond W, Sacco R, Sorlie P, Stafford R, Steinberger J, Thom T, Wasserthiel-Smoller S, Wong N, Wylie-Rosett J, Hong Y (2009) Heart disease and stroke statistics–2009 update: a report from the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Circulation 119(3):480–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    de Mello VD, Schwab U, Kolehmainen M, Koenig W, Siloaho M, Poutanen K, Mykkanen H, Uusitupa M (2011) A diet high in fatty fish, bilberries and wholegrain products improves markers of endothelial function and inflammation in individuals with impaired glucose metabolism in a randomised controlled trial: the Sysdimet study. Diabetologia 54(11):2755–2767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Khoo J, Piantadosi C, Duncan R, Worthley SG, Jenkins A, Noakes M, Worthley MI, Lange K, Wittert GA (2011) Comparing effects of a low-energy diet and a high-protein low-fat diet on sexual and endothelial function, urinary tract symptoms, and inflammation in obese diabetic men. J Sex Med 8(10):2868–2875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Luciano M, Mottus R, Starr JM, McNeill G, Jia X, Craig LC, Deary IJ (2012) Depressive symptoms and diet: their effects on prospective inflammation levels in the elderly. Brain Behav Immun 26(5):717–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chang AR, Lazo M, Appel LJ, Gutierrez OM, Grams ME (2014) High dietary phosphorus intake is associated with all-cause mortality: results from NHANES III. Am J Clin Nutr 99(2):320–327. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.073148 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cheung CL, Sahni S, Cheung BM, Sing CW, Wong IC (2014) Vitamin K intake and mortality in people with chronic kidney disease from NHANES III. Clin Nutr. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2014.03.011 Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cohen HW, Hailpern SM, Alderman MH (2008) Sodium intake and mortality follow-up in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). J Gen Intern Med 23(9):1297–1302. doi: 10.1007/s11606-008-0645-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Deng X, Song Y, Manson JE, Signorello LB, Zhang SM, Shrubsole MJ, Ness RM, Seidner DL, Dai Q (2013) Magnesium, vitamin D status and mortality: results from US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001 to 2006 and NHANES III. BMC Med 11:187. doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-11-187 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shivappa N, Steck SE, Hurley TG, Hussey JR, Hebert JR (2014) Designing and developing a literature-derived, population-based dietary inflammatory index. Public Health Nutr 17(8):1689–1696. doi: 10.1017/S1368980013002115 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shivappa N, Steck SE, Hurley TG, Hussey JR, Ma Y, Ockene IS, Tabung F, Hebert JR (2014) A population-based dietary inflammatory index predicts levels of C-reactive protein in the Seasonal Variation of Blood Cholesterol Study (SEASONS). Public Health Nutr 17(8):1825–1833. doi: 10.1017/S1368980013002565 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wirth MD, Burch J, Shivappa N, Violanti JM, Burchfiel CM, Fekedulegn D, Andrew ME, Hartley TA, Miller DB, Mnatsakanova A, Charles LE, Steck SE, Hurley TG, Vena JE, Hebert JR (2014) Association of a dietary inflammatory index with inflammatory indices and metabolic syndrome among police officers. J Occup Environ Med 56(9):986–989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wood L, Shivappa N, Berthon BS, Gibson PG, Hebert JR (2014) Dietary inflammatory index is related to asthma risk, lung function and systemic inflammation in asthma. Clin Exp Allergy. doi: 10.1111/cea.12323 Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Shivappa N, Hebert JR, Rietzschel ER, De Buyzere ML, Langlois M, Debruyne E et al (2015) Associations between dietary inflammatory index and inflammatory markers in the Asklepios Study. Br J Nutr 113(4):665–671. PubMed PMID: 25639781. Pubmed Central PMCID: 4355619 Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tabung FK, Steck SE, Zhang J, Ma Y, Liese AD, Agalliu I, Hingle M, Hou L, Hurley TG, Jiao L, Martin LW, Millen AE, Park HL, Rosal MC, Shikany JM, Shivappa N, Ockene JK, Hebert JR (2015) Construct validation of the dietary inflammatory index among postmenopausal women. Ann Epidemiol 25(6):398–405. doi: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2015.03.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Aa Alkerwi, Shivappa N, Crichton G, Hébert JR (2014) No significant independent relationships with cardiometabolic biomarkers were detected in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study population. Nutr Res. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2014.07.017 Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shivappa N, Hebert JR, Rietzschel ER, De Buyzere ML, Langlois M, Debruyne E, Marcos A, Huybrechts I (2015) Associations between dietary inflammatory index and inflammatory markers in the Asklepios Study. Br J Nutr 113(4):665–671. doi: 10.1017/S000711451400395X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wirth MD, Burch J, Shivappa N, Steck SE, Hurley TG, Vena JE, Hebert JR (2014) Dietary inflammatory index scores differ by shift work status: NHANES 2005 to 2010. J Occup Environ Med 56(2):145–148. doi: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000000088 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zamora-Ros R, Shivappa N, Steck SE, Canzian F, Landi S, Alonso MH, Hebert JR, Moreno V (2015) Dietary inflammatory index and inflammatory gene interactions in relation to colorectal cancer risk in the Bellvitge colorectal cancer case-control study. Genes Nutr 10(1):447. doi: 10.1007/s12263-014-0447-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Shivappa N, Prizment AE, Blair CK, Jacobs DR Jr, Steck SE, Hebert JR (2014) Dietary inflammatory index and risk of colorectal cancer in the Iowa Women’s Health Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 23(11):2383–2392. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-0537 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tabung FK, Steck SE, Ma Y, Liese AD, Zhang J, Caan B, Hou L, Johnson KC, Mossavar-Rahmani Y, Shivappa N, Wactawski-Wende J, Ockene JK, Hebert JR (2015) The association between dietary inflammatory index and risk of colorectal cancer among postmenopausal women: results from the Women’s Health Initiative. Cancer Causes Control CCC 26(3):399–408. doi: 10.1007/s10552-014-0515-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wirth MD, Shivappa N, Steck SE, Hurley TG, Hébert JR (2015) The dietary inflammatory index is associated with colorectal cancer in the National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study. Br J Nutr FirstView. doi: 10.1017/S000711451500104X Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Shivappa N, Bosetti C, Zucchetto A, Montella M, Serraino D, La Vecchia C, Hebert JR (2014) Association between dietary inflammatory index and prostate cancer among Italian men. Br J Nutr. doi: 10.1017/S0007114514003572 Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Shivappa N, Bosetti C, Zucchetto A, Serraino D, La Vecchia C, Hebert JR (2014) Dietary inflammatory index and risk of pancreatic cancer in an Italian case-control study. Br J Nutr. doi: 10.1017/S0007114514003626 Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Shivappa N, Hebert JR, Polesel J, Zucchetto A, Crispo A, Montella M, Franceschi S, Rossi M, La Vecchia C, Serraino D (2015) Inflammatory potential of diet and risk for hepatocellular cancer in a case-control study from Italy. Br J Nutr. doi: 10.1017/S0007114515004419 Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shivappa N, Hébert JR, Zucchetto A, Montella M, Serraino D, La Vecchia C, Rossi M (2015) Dietary inflammatory index and endometrial cancer risk in an Italian case–control study. Br J Nutr FirstView. doi: 10.1017/S0007114515004171 Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Shivappa N, Zucchetto A, Serraino D, Rossi M, La Vecchia C, Hebert JR (2015) Dietary inflammatory index and risk of esophageal squamous cell cancer in a case-control study from Italy. Cancer Causes Control CCC 26(10):1439–1447. doi: 10.1007/s10552-015-0636-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Shivappa N, Blair C, Prizment A, Jacobs D Jr, Steck S, Hébert J (2015) Association between inflammatory potential of diet and mortality in the Iowa Women’s Health study. Eur J Nutr. doi: 10.1007/s00394-015-0967-1 Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Shivappa N, Harris H, Wolk A, Hebert JR (2015) Association between inflammatory potential of diet and mortality among women in the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Eur J Nutr. doi: 10.1007/s00394-015-1005-z Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Plan and operation of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–94. Series 1: programs and collection procedures (1994). Vital Health Stat 1(32):1–407Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Erlinger TP, Platz EA, Rifai N, Helzlsouer KJ (2004) C-reactive protein and the risk of incident colorectal cancer.[see comment]. JAMA 291(5):585–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gunter MJ, Stolzenberg-Solomon R, Cross AJ, Leitzmann MF, Weinstein S, Wood RJ, Virtamo J, Taylor PR, Albanes D, Sinha R (2006) A prospective study of serum C-reactive protein and colorectal cancer risk in men. Cancer Res 66(4):2483–2487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Otani T, Iwasaki M, Sasazuki S, Inoue M, Tsugane S, Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study G (2006) Plasma C-reactive protein and risk of colorectal cancer in a nested case-control study: Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15(4):690–695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Nikiteas NI, Tzanakis N, Gazouli M, Rallis G, Daniilidis K, Theodoropoulos G, Kostakis A, Peros G (2005) Serum IL-6, TNFalpha and CRP levels in Greek colorectal cancer patients: prognostic implications. World J Gastroenterol 11(11):1639–1643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kennedy ET, Ohls J, Carlson S, Fleming K (1995) The healthy eating index: design and applications. J Am Diet Assoc 95(10):1103–1108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Miller PE, Lazarus P, Lesko SM, Muscat JE, Harper G, Cross AJ, Sinha R, Ryczak K, Escobar G, Mauger DT, Hartman TJ (2010) Diet index-based and empirically derived dietary patterns are associated with colorectal cancer risk. J Nutr 140(7):1267–1273. doi: 10.3945/jn.110.121780 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Panagiotakos DB, Pitsavos C, Stefanadis C (2006) Dietary patterns: a Mediterranean diet score and its relation to clinical and biological markers of cardiovascular disease risk. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 16(8):559–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Mitrou PN, Kipnis V, Thiebaut AC, Reedy J, Subar AF, Wirfalt E, Flood A, Mouw T, Hollenbeck AR, Leitzmann MF, Schatzkin A (2007) Mediterranean dietary pattern and prediction of all-cause mortality in a US population: results from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Arch Intern Med 167(22):2461–2468. doi: 10.1001/archinte.167.22.2461 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rathod AD, Bharadwaj AS, Badheka AO, Kizilbash M, Afonso L (2012) Healthy Eating Index and mortality in a nationally representative elderly cohort. Arch Intern Med 172(3):275–277. doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2011.1031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Akbaraly TN, Ferrie JE, Berr C, Brunner EJ, Head J, Marmot MG, Singh-Manoux A, Ritchie K, Shipley MJ, Kivimaki M (2011) Alternative Healthy Eating Index and mortality over 18 y of follow-up: results from the Whitehall II cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 94(1):247–253. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.111.013128 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Reedy J, Krebs-Smith SM, Miller PE, Liese AD, Kahle LL, Park Y, Subar AF (2014) Higher diet quality is associated with decreased risk of all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer mortality among older adults. J Nutr. doi: 10.3945/jn.113.189407 Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Larsson SC, Orsini N (2014) Red meat and processed meat consumption and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol 179(3):282–289. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwt261 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Li K, Kaaks R, Linseisen J, Rohrmann S (2011) Dietary calcium and magnesium intake in relation to cancer incidence and mortality in a German prospective cohort (EPIC-Heidelberg). Cancer Causes Control 22(10):1375–1382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Pocobelli G, Peters U, Kristal AR, White E (2009) Use of supplements of multivitamins, vitamin C, and vitamin E in relation to mortality. Am J Epidemiol 170(4):472–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Cavicchia PP, Steck SE, Hurley TG, Hussey JR, Ma Y, Ockene IS, Hébert JR (2009) A new dietary inflammatory index predicts interval changes in high-sensitivity c-reactive protein. J Nutr 139(12):2365–2372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Shivappa N, Steck SE, Hurley TG, Hussey JR, Ma Y, Ockene IS, Tabung F, Hebert JR (2013) A population-based dietary inflammatory index predicts levels of C-reactive protein in the Seasonal Variation of Blood Cholesterol Study (SEASONS). Public Health Nutr 10:1–9Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hebert JR (1985) Relationship of vegetarianism to child growth in South India. Am J Clin Nutr 42(6):1246–1254Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hebert JR (1985) Effects of water quality and water quantity on nutritional status: findings from a south Indian community. Bull World Health Organ 63(1):145–155Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hebert JR (1984) Water quality and water quantity and wasting in south India. Trop Geogr Med 36(4):375–381Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hebert JR, Toporoff E (1989) Dietary exposures and other factors of possible prognostic-significance in relation to tumor size and nodal involvement in early-stage breast-cancer. Int J Epidemiol 18(3):518–526. doi: 10.1093/Ije/18.3.518 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Esmaillzadeh A, Kimiagar M, Mehrabi Y, Azadbakht L, Hu FB, Willett WC (2007) Dietary patterns and markers of systemic inflammation among Iranian women. J Nutr 137(4):992–998Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Festa A, D’Agostino R, Howard G, Mykkänen L, Tracy RP, Haffner SM (2000) Chronic subclinical inflammation as part of the insulin resistance syndrome: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS). Circulation 102(1):42–47. doi: 10.1161/01.cir.102.1.42 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Bruce WR, Wolever TM, Giacca A (2000) Mechanisms linking diet and colorectal cancer: the possible role of insulin resistance. Nutr Cancer 37(1):19–26. doi: 10.1207/S15327914NC3701_2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Bruce WR, Giacca A, Medline A (2000) Possible mechanisms relating diet and risk of colon cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 9(12):1271–1279Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Eaton CB, Abdul Baki AR, Waring ME, Roberts MB, Lu B (2010) The association of low selenium and renal insufficiency with coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality: NHANES III follow-up study. Atherosclerosis 212(2):689–694. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2010.07.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Yang Q, Zhang Z, Gregg EW, Flanders WD, Merritt R, Hu FB (2014) Added sugar intake and cardiovascular diseases mortality among US adults. JAMA Intern Med 174(4):516–524. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.13563 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kappeler R, Eichholzer M, Rohrmann S (2013) Meat consumption and diet quality and mortality in NHANES III. Eur J Clin Nutr 67(6):598–606. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2013.59 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hebert JR, Gupta PC, Mehta H, Ebbeling CB, Bhonsle RR, Varghese F (2000) Sources of variability in dietary intake in two distinct regions of rural India: implications for nutrition study design and interpretation. Eur J Clin Nutr 54(6):479–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hebert JR, Hurley TG, Steck SE, Miller DR, Tabung FK, Peterson KE, Kushi LH, Frongillo EA (2014) Considering the value of dietary assessment data in informing nutrition-related health policy. Adv Nutr 5(4):447–455. doi: 10.3945/an.114.006189 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Copeland KT, Checkoway H, McMichael AJ, Holbrook RH (1977) Bias due to misclassification in the estimation of relative risk. Am J Epidemiol 105(5):488–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Freedman LS, Schatzkin A, Midthune D, Kipnis V (2011) Dealing with dietary measurement error in nutritional cohort studies. J Natl Cancer Inst 103(14):1086–1092CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Jain M, Howe GR, Harrison L, Miller AB (1989) A study of repeatability of dietary data over a seven-year period. Am J Epidemiol 129(2):422–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Jensen OM, Wahrendorf J, Rosenqvist A, Geser A (1984) The reliability of questionnaire-derived historical dietary information and temporal stability of food habits in individuals. Am J Epidemiol 120(2):281–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Lindsted KD, Kuzma JW (1989) Long-term (24-year) recall reliability in cancer cases and controls using a 21-item food frequency questionnaire. Nutr Cancer 12(2):135–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Mursu J, Steffen LM, Meyer KA, Duprez D, Jacobs DR Jr (2013) Diet quality indexes and mortality in postmenopausal women: the Iowa Women’s Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 98(2):444–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Sijtsma FP, Meyer KA, Steffen LM, Shikany JM, Van Horn L, Harnack L, Kromhout D, Jacobs DR Jr (2012) Longitudinal trends in diet and effects of sex, race, and education on dietary quality score change: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study. Am J Clin Nutr 95(3):580–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Thompson FE, Metzner HL, Lamphiear DE, Hawthorne VM (1990) Characteristics of individuals and long term reproducibility of dietary reports: the Tecumseh Diet Methodology Study. J Clin Epidemiol 43(11):1169–1178.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nitin Shivappa
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Susan E. Steck
    • 1
    • 2
  • James R. Hussey
    • 2
  • Yunsheng Ma
    • 3
  • James R. Hebert
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Cancer Prevention and Control ProgramUniversity of South CarolinaColumbiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public HealthUniversity of South CarolinaColumbiaUSA
  3. 3.Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine, Department of MedicineUniversity of Massachusetts Medical SchoolWorcesterUSA

Personalised recommendations