European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 56, Issue 1, pp 343–353 | Cite as

Higher plasma quercetin levels following oral administration of an onion skin extract compared with pure quercetin dihydrate in humans

  • Constanze Burak
  • Verena Brüll
  • Peter Langguth
  • Benno F. Zimmermann
  • Birgit Stoffel-Wagner
  • Udo Sausen
  • Peter Stehle
  • Siegfried Wolffram
  • Sarah EgertEmail author
Original Contribution



To investigate the plasma kinetics of quercetin derived from hard capsules filled with onion skin extract powder or quercetin dihydrate in humans.


In a randomized, single-blind, diet-controlled crossover study, 12 healthy subjects (six men and six women) aged 21–33 years were administered a single oral supra-nutritional dose of approximately 163 mg quercetin derived from onion skin extract powder (containing 95.3 % of total flavonoids as quercetin aglycone) or quercetin dihydrate (134 mg quercetin aglycone equivalent). Blood samples were collected before and during a 24-h period after quercetin administration. The concentrations of quercetin and its two monomethylated derivatives, isorhamnetin (3′-O-methyl quercetin), and tamarixetin (4′-O-methyl quercetin), were measured using HPLC with fluorescence detection after plasma enzymatic treatment.


The systemic availability, determined by comparing the plasma concentration–time curves of quercetin, was 4.8 times higher, and the maximum plasma concentration (C max) was 5.4 times higher after ingestion of the onion skin extract than after ingestion of pure quercetin dihydrate. By contrast, t max did not differ significantly between the two formulations. The C max values for isorhamnetin and tamarixetin were 3.8 and 4.4 times higher, respectively, after administration of onion skin extract than after pure quercetin dihydrate. The plasma kinetics of quercetin were not significantly different in men and women.


Quercetin aglycone derived from onion skin extract powder is significantly more bioavailable than that from quercetin dihydrate powder filled hard capsules.


Quercetin Bioavailability Onion Human study 



Area under the plasma concentration–time curve


Maximum plasma concentration


Elimination rate constant


Time at maximum quercetin plasma concentration C max


Elimination half-life



We are indebted to Anke Ernst, Ute Hartung, Petra Schulz, and Martina Quambusch for excellent technical assistance, Frithjof Egert for helpful comments on data analyses, and Rudolf Wild GmbH & Company KG (Matthias Saß) for the onion skin extract. This study was supported by Grant No. EG292/3-1 of the German Research Foundation (to SE).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical standards

The study was conducted according to the guidelines laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki, and its later amendments and all procedures involving human participants were approved by the ethical committee of the Medical Faculty of the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Germany. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Constanze Burak
    • 1
  • Verena Brüll
    • 1
  • Peter Langguth
    • 2
  • Benno F. Zimmermann
    • 3
    • 4
  • Birgit Stoffel-Wagner
    • 5
  • Udo Sausen
    • 6
  • Peter Stehle
    • 1
  • Siegfried Wolffram
    • 7
  • Sarah Egert
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Nutritional PhysiologyUniversity of BonnBonnGermany
  2. 2.Department of Biopharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Institute of Pharmacy and BiochemistryJohannes Gutenberg UniversityMainzGermany
  3. 3.Institut Prof. Dr. Georg Kurz GmbHCologneGermany
  4. 4.Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Food Technology and Food BiotechnologyUniversity of BonnBonnGermany
  5. 5.Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical PharmacologyUniversity Hospital BonnBonnGermany
  6. 6.Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care MedicineUniversity Hospital BonnBonnGermany
  7. 7.Institute of Animal Nutrition and PhysiologyChristian-Albrechts-University KielKielGermany

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