European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 56, Issue 1, pp 333–341 | Cite as

Consumption of anthocyanin-rich cherry juice for 12 weeks improves memory and cognition in older adults with mild-to-moderate dementia

  • Katherine Kent
  • Karen Charlton
  • Steven Roodenrys
  • Marijka Batterham
  • Jan Potter
  • Victoria Traynor
  • Hayley Gilbert
  • Olivia Morgan
  • Rachelle Richards
Original Contribution

Abstract

Purpose

Dietary flavonoids, including anthocyanins, may positively influence cognition and may be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of dementia. We aimed to assess whether daily consumption of anthocyanin-rich cherry juice changed cognitive function in older adults with dementia. Blood pressure and anti-inflammatory effects were examined as secondary outcomes.

Methods

A 12-week randomised controlled trial assessed cognitive outcomes in older adults (+70 year) with mild-to-moderate dementia (n = 49) after consumption of 200 ml/day of either a cherry juice or a control juice with negligible anthocyanin content. Blood pressure and inflammatory markers (CRP and IL-6) were measured at 6 and 12 weeks. ANCOVA controlling for baseline and RMANOVA assessed change in cognition and blood pressure.

Results

Improvements in verbal fluency (p = 0.014), short-term memory (p = 0.014) and long-term memory (p ≤ 0.001) were found in the cherry juice group. A significant reduction in systolic (p = 0.038) blood pressure and a trend for diastolic (p = 0.160) blood pressure reduction was evident in the intervention group. Markers of inflammation (CRP and IL-6) were not altered.

Conclusion

Inclusion of an anthocyanin-rich beverage may be a practical and feasible way to improve total anthocyanin consumption in older adults with mild-to-moderate dementia, with potential to improve specific cognitive outcomes.

Keywords

Cherry Cognition Anthocyanin Dementia 

References

  1. 1.
    Leather S (1995) Fruit and vegetables: consumption patterns and health consequences. Food J Hyg Rev 97:10Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Engelhart MJ, Geerlings MI, Ruitenberg A, van Swieten JC, Hofman A, Witteman JC, Breteler MM (2002) Dietary intake of antioxidants and risk of Alzheimer disease. JAMA 287(24):3223–3229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Spencer JPE (2008) Flavonoids: modulators of brain function? Br J Nutr 99(E-S1):ES60–ES77. doi:10.1017/s0007114508965776 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Somerset SM, Johannot L (2008) Dietary flavonoid sources in Australian adults. Nutr Cancer 60(4):442–449. doi:10.1080/01635580802143836 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Macdonald R, Lovegrove JA, Chong MFF (2010) Fruit polyphenols and CVD risk: a review of human intervention studies. Br J Nutr 104(S3):S28–S39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Notas G, Nifli AP, Castanas E, Kampa M (2007) Polyphenols and cancer cell growth, vol 159. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 79–113Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Vauzour D, Rendeiro C, Spencer JPE (2009) Flavonoids and cognition: the molecular mechanisms underlying their behavioural effects. Arch Biochem Biophys 492(1–2):1–9Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Spencer JPE (2010) The impact of fruit flavonoids on memory and cognition. Br J Nutr 104(S3):S40–S47. doi:10.1017/s0007114510003934 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Vauzour D, Rodriguez-Mateos A, Corona G, Oruna-Concha MJ, Spencer JPE (2010) Polyphenols and human health: prevention of disease and mechanisms of action. Nutrients 2(11):1106–1131. doi:10.3390/nu2111106 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Vauzour D, Vafeiadou K, Rodriguez-Mateos A, Rendeiro C, Spencer JPE (2008) The neuroprotective potential of flavonoids: a multiplicity of effects. Genes Nutr 3(3):115–126. doi:10.1007/s12263-008-0091-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Krikorian R, Shidler MD, Nash TA, Kalt W, Vinqvist-Tymchuk MR, Shukitt-Hale B, Joseph JA (2010) Blueberry supplementation improves memory in older adults. J Agric Food Chem 58(7):3996–4000. doi:10.1021/jf9029332 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Krikorian R, Nash TA, Shidler MD, Shukitt-Hale B, Joseph JA (2010) Concord grape juice supplementation improves memory function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. Br J Nutr 103(5):730–734. doi:10.1017/s0007114509992364 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Krikorian R, Boespflug EL, Fleck DE, Stein AL, Wightman JD, Shidler MD, Sadat-Hossieny S (2012) Concord grape juice supplementation and neurocognitive function in human aging. J Agric Food Chem 60(23):5736–5742. doi:10.1021/jf300277g CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    USDA (2013) United States Department of Agriculture Database for the flavonoid content of selected foods. Release 3:1Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lang GA, Mulabagal V, DeWitt DL, Nair MG, Dalavoy SS (2009) Anthocyanin content, lipid peroxidation and cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibitory activities of sweet and sour cherries. J Agric Food Chem 57(4):1239–1246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bondonno CP, Swinny E, Mubarak A, Hodgson JM, Downey LA, Croft KD, Scholey A, Stough C, Yang X, Considine MJ, Ward NC, Puddey IB (2014) The acute effect of flavonoid-rich apples and nitrate-rich spinach on cognitive performance and mood in healthy men and women. Food Funct 5(5):849–858. doi:10.1039/c3fo60590f CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Williams RJ, Spencer JPE (2012) Flavonoids, cognition, and dementia: actions, mechanisms, and potential therapeutic utility for Alzheimer disease. Free Radic Bio Med 52(1):35–45. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2011.09.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jorm AF, Dear KBG, Burgess NM (2005) Projections of future numbers of dementia cases in Australia with and without prevention. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 39(11–12):959. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1614.2005.01713.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Caldwell K, Charlton KE, Roodenrys S, Jenner A (2015) Anthocyanin-rich cherry juice does not improve acute cognitive performance on RAVLT. Nutr Neurosci. doi:10.1179/1476830515Y.0000000005 Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Iland PG, Cynkar W, Francis IL, Williams PJ, Coombe BG (1996) Optimisation of methods for the determination of total and red free glycosyl-glucose in black grape berries of Vitus vinifera. Aust J Grape Wine Res 2:171–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cereda E (2012) Mini nutritional assessment. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 15(1):29–41. doi:10.1097/MCO.0b013e32834d7647 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Graf C (2008) The Lawton instrumental activities of daily living scale. Am J Nurs 108(4):52–62. doi:10.1097/01.naj.0000314810.46029.74 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mary CT, Alvaro N, Snow WG, Rory HF, Maria LZ, David WR (1994) Use of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test in differentiating normal aging from Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Dementia. Psychol Assess 6(2):129. doi:10.1037/1040-3590.6.2.129 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Schoenberg MR, Dawson KA, Duff K, Patton D, Scott JG, Adams RL (2006) Test performance and classification statistics for the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test in selected clinical samples. Arch Clin Neuropsychol 21(7):693–703. doi:10.1016/j.acn.2006.06.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ross TP, Hanouskova E, Giarla K, Calhoun E, Tucker M (2007) The reliability and validity of the self-ordered pointing task. Arch Clin Neuropsychol 22(4):449–458. doi:10.1016/j.acn.2007.01.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Calero MD, Arnedo ML, Elena N, Monica R-P, Cristobal C (2002) Usefulness of a 15-item version of the Boston Naming Test in neuropsychological assessment of low-educational elders with dementia. J Gerontol 57B(2):P187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rasmusson DX, Zonderman AB, Kawas C, Resnick SM (1998) Effects of age and dementia on the trail making test. Clin Neuropsychol 12(2):169–178. doi:10.1076/clin.12.2.169.2005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gliko BT, Espe-Pfeifer P, Selden J, Escalona A, Golden CJ (2000) Validity of Digit Span as a test for memory in dementia. Arch Clin Neuropsychol 15(8):737. doi:10.1016/s0887-6177(00)80162-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pasquier F, Lebert F, Grymonprez L, Petit H (1995) Verbal fluency in dementia of frontal lobe type and dementia of Alzheimer type. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 58(1):81–84. doi:10.1136/jnnp.58.1.81 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Paradela EMP, Lourenço RA, Veras RP (2005) Validation of geriatric depression scale in a general outpatient clinic. Rev Saude Publica 39(6):918–923CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cohen J (1988) Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Erlbaum Associates, HillsdaleGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Shukitt-Hale B, Carey A, Simon L, Mark DA, Joseph JA (2006) Effects of concord grape juice on cognitive and motor deficits in aging. Nutrition 22(3):295–302. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2005.07.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Shukitt-Hale B, Cheng V, Joseph JA (2009) Effects of blackberries on motor and cognitive function in aged rats. Nutr Neurosci 12(3):135–140. doi:10.1179/147683009X423292 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Galli RL, Shukitt-Hale B, Youdim KA, Joseph JA (2002) Fruit polyphenolics and brain aging: nutritional interventions targeting age-related neuronal and behavioral deficits. Ann N Y Acad Sci 959(1):128–132. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2002.tb02089.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Johannot L, Somerset SM (2006) Age-related variations in flavonoid intake and sources in the Australian population. Public Health Nutr 9(8):1045–1054CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Williamson G, Holst B (2008) Dietary reference intake (DRI) value for dietary polyphenols: are we heading in the right direction? Br J Nutr 99(Suppl 3):S55–S58. doi:10.1017/S0007114508006867 Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Devore EE, Grodstein F, van Rooij FJ, Hofman A, Stampfer MJ, Witteman JC, Breteler MM (2010) Dietary antioxidants and long-term risk of dementia. Arch Neurol-Chicago 67(7):819–825. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.144 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Egert S, Rimbach G (2011) Which sources of flavonoids: complex diets or dietary supplements? Adv Nutr 2(1):8–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Willis LM, Shukitt-Hale B, Joseph JA (2009) Recent advances in berry supplementation and age-related cognitive decline. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 12(1):91–94. doi:10.1097/MCO.0b013e32831b9c6e CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katherine Kent
    • 1
  • Karen Charlton
    • 1
  • Steven Roodenrys
    • 2
  • Marijka Batterham
    • 3
  • Jan Potter
    • 4
  • Victoria Traynor
    • 5
  • Hayley Gilbert
    • 2
  • Olivia Morgan
    • 2
  • Rachelle Richards
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Medicine, Faculty of Science, Medicine and HealthUniversity of WollongongWollongongAustralia
  2. 2.School of Psychology, Faculty of Social SciencesUniversity of WollongongWollongongAustralia
  3. 3.Statistical Consulting ServiceUniversity of WollongongWollongongAustralia
  4. 4.Division of Aged Care and Rehabilitation, Illawarra Shoalhaven Local Health DistrictWollongong HospitalWollongongAustralia
  5. 5.School of Nursing, Faculty of Science, Medicine and HealthUniversity of WollongongWollongongAustralia

Personalised recommendations