Advertisement

European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 56, Issue 1, pp 273–281 | Cite as

Prospective study on the association between diet quality and depression in mid-aged women over 9 years

  • Jun S. LaiEmail author
  • Alexis J. Hure
  • Christopher Oldmeadow
  • Mark McEvoy
  • Julie Byles
  • John Attia
Original Contribution

Abstract

Purpose

To examine the longitudinal association between diet quality and depression using prospective data from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health.

Methods

Women born in 1946–1951 (n = 7877) were followed over 9 years starting from 2001. Dietary intake was assessed using the Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies (version 2) in 2001 and a shortened form in 2007 and 2010. Diet quality was summarised using the Australian Recommended Food Score. Depression was measured using the 10-item Centre for Epidemiologic Depression Scale and self-reported physician diagnosis. Pooled logistic regression models including time-varying covariates were used to examine associations between diet quality tertiles and depression. Women were also categorised based on changes in diet quality during 2001–2007. Analyses were adjusted for potential confounders.

Results

The highest tertile of diet quality was associated marginally with lower odds of depression (OR 0.94; 95 % CI 0.83, 1.00; P = 0.049) although no significant linear trend was observed across tertiles (OR 1.00; 95 % CI 0.94, 1.10; P = 0.48). Women who maintained a moderate or high score over 6 years had a 6–14 % reduced odds of depression compared with women who maintained a low score (moderate vs low score—OR 0.94; 95 % CI 0.80, 0.99; P = 0.045; high vs low score—OR 0.86; 95 % CI 0.77, 0.96; P = 0.01). Similar results were observed in analyses excluding women with prior history of depression.

Conclusion

Long-term maintenance of good diet quality may be associated with reduced odds of depression. Randomised controlled trials are needed to eliminate the possibility of residual confounding.

Keywords

Diet Depression Prospective study Women 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The research on which this paper is based was conducted as part of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health, the University of Newcastle and the University of Queensland. We are grateful to the Australian Government Department of Health who funded the study and the women who provided the survey data. The authors would also like to thank Professor Graham Giles of the Cancer Epidemiology Centre of Cancer Council Victoria, for permission to use the Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies (Version 2), Melbourne: Cancer Council Victoria, 1996.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical standards

This study was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committees of the University of Newcastle and the University of Queensland. The research was carried out in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants prior to inclusion in the study.

Supplementary material

394_2015_1078_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (132 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 132 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Commonwealth Department of Health and Aged Care & AIHW (1999) NHPA report on mental health 1998: a report focusing on depression. Cat. no. PHE 11. AIHW, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    World Health Organization (2012) Depression. WHO. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs369/en/. Accessed 10 Dec 2012
  3. 3.
    Mitchell AJ, Subramaniam H (2005) Prognosis of depression in old age compared to middle age: a systematic review of comparative studies. Am J Psychiatry 162(9):1588–1601. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.162.9.1588 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Haralambous B, Lin X, Dow B, Jones C, Tinney J, Bryant C (2009) Depression in older age: a scoping study. National Ageing Research Institute, ParkvilleGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rodda J, Walker Z, Carter J (2011) Depression in older adults. BMJ 343:d5219. doi: 10.1136/bmj.d5219 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jacka F, Mykletun A, Berk M (2012) Moving towards a population health approach to the primary prevention of common mental disorders. BMC Med 10(1):149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lai JS, Hiles S, Bisquera A, Hure AJ, McEvoy M, Attia J (2014) A systematic review and meta-analysis of dietary patterns and depression in community-dwelling adults. Am J Clin Nutr 99(1):181–197. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.069880 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Akbaraly TN, Sabia S, Shipley MJ, Batty GD, Kivimaki M (2013) Adherence to healthy dietary guidelines and future depressive symptoms: evidence for sex differentials in the Whitehall II study. Am J Clin Nutr 97(2):419–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chocano-Bedoya PO, O’Reilly EJ, Lucas M, Mirzaei F, Okereke OI, Fung TT, Hu FB, Ascherio A (2013) Prospective study on long-term dietary patterns and incident depression in middle-aged and older women. Am J Clin Nutr 98(3):813–820. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.112.052761 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Willett W (1998) Nutritional epidemiology, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Flood VM, Burlutsky G, Webb KL, Wang JJ, Smith WT, Mitchell P (2010) Food and nutrient consumption trends in older Australians: a 10-year cohort study. Eur J Clin Nutr 64(6):603–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2012) Australia’s food and nutrition 2012. Cat. no. PHE 163. AIHW, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Australian Bureau of Statistics (2012) Australian Health Survey: first results, 2011–12. ABS cat. no. 4364.0.55.001. ABS, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rienks J, Dobson AJ, Mishra GD (2013) Mediterranean dietary pattern and prevalence and incidence of depressive symptoms in mid-aged women: results from a large community-based prospective study. Eur J Clin Nutr 67(1):75–82. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2012.193 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lee C, Dobson AJ, Brown WJ, Bryson L, Byles J, Warner-Smith P, Young AF (2005) Cohort Profile: the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. Int J Epidemiol 34(5):987–991. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyi098 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Giles G, Ireland P (1996) Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies (Version 2). Cancer Council Victoria, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ireland P, Jolley D, Giles G, O’Dea K, Powles J, Rutishauser I, Wahlqvist M, Williams J (1994) Development of the Melbourne FFQ: a food frequency questionnaire for use in an Australian prospective study involving ethnically diverse cohort. Asia Pac Clin Nutr 3:19–31Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hodge A, Patterson AJ, Brown WJ, Ireland P, Giles G (2000) The Anti Cancer Council of Victoria FFQ: relative validity of nutrient intakes compared with weighed food records in young to middle-aged women in a study of iron supplementation. Aust NZ J Public Health 24(6):576–583. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-842X.2000.tb00520.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Collins CE, Young AF, Hodge A (2008) Diet quality is associated with higher nutrient intake and self-rated health in mid-aged women. J Am Coll Nutr 27(1):146–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kant AK, Thompson FE (1992) Measures of overall diet quality from a food frequency questionnaire: National Health Interview Survey. Nutr Res 17(9):1443–1456. doi: 10.1016/S0271-5317(97)00135-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    National Health and Medical Research Council (2013) Australian Dietary Guidelines. NHMRC, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Smith A, Kellett E, Schmerlaib Y (1998) The Australian guide to healthy eating. Commonwealth Department of Health and Family Services, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Andresen EM, Malmgren JA, Carter WB, Patrick DL (1994) Screening for depression in well older adults: evaluation of a short form of the CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale). Am J Prev Med 10(2):77–84Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Boey KW (1999) Cross-validation of a short form of the CES-D in Chinese elderly. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 14(8):608–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    D’Agostino RB, Lee M-L, Belanger AJ, Cupples LA, Anderson K, Kannel WB (1990) Relation of pooled logistic regression to time dependent cox regression analysis: the Framingham heart study. Stat Med 9(12):1501–1515. doi: 10.1002/sim.4780091214 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Stata Corp LP (1996-2013) Stata, version 11. College StationGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Le Port A, Gueguen A, Kesse-Guyot E, Melchior M, Lemogne C, Nabi H, Goldberg M, Zins M, Czernichow S (2012) Association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms over time: a 10-year follow-up study of the GAZEL cohort. PLoS ONE 7(12):e51593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Akbaraly TN, Brunner EJ, Ferrie JE, Marmot MG, Kivimaki M, Singh-Manoux A (2009) Dietary pattern and depressive symptoms in middle age. Br J Psychiatry 195(5):408–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jacka FN, Pasco JA, Mykletun A, Williams LJ, Hodge AM, O’Reilly SL, Nicholson GC, Kotowicz MA, Berk M (2010) Association of western and traditional diets with depression and anxiety in women. Am J Psychiatry 167(3):305–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sanchez-Villegas A, Delgado-Rodriguez M, Alonso A, Schlatter J, Lahortiga F, Majem LS, Martinez-Gonzalez MA (2009) Association of the Mediterranean dietary pattern with the incidence of depression: the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra/University of Navarra Follow-up (SUN) Cohort. Arch Gen Psychiatry 66(10):1090–1098CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Michels KB (2003) Nutritional epidemiology—past, present, future. Int J Epidemiol 32(4):486–488. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyg216 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    McNaughton S (2010) Dietary patterns and diet quality: approaches to assessing complex exposures in nutrition. Australas Epidemiol 17(1):35–37Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Alhazmi A, Stojanovski E, McEvoy M, Brown W, Garg ML (2014) Diet quality score is a predictor of type 2 diabetes risk in women: the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. Br J Nutr 112(6):945–951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Helmersson J, Arnlov J, Larsson A, Basu S (2009) Low dietary intake of beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid is associated with increased inflammatory and oxidative stress status in a Swedish cohort. Br J Nutr 101(12):1775–1782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Holt EM, Steffen LM, Moran A, Basu S, Steinberger J, Ross JA, Hong CP, Sinaiko AR (2009) Fruit and vegetable consumption and its relation to markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in adolescents. J Am Diet Assoc 109(3):414–421. doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2008.11.036 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Krishnan V, Nestler EJ (2008) The molecular neurobiology of depression. Nature 455(7215):894–902CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Djernes JK (2006) Prevalence and predictors of depression in populations of elderly: a review. Acta Psychiatr Scand 113(5):372–387. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.2006.00770.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Copeland KT, Checkoway H, McMichael AJ, Holbrook RH (1977) Bias due to misclassification in the estimation of relative risk. Am J Epidemiol 105(5):488–495Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Watson LC, Pignone MP (2003) Screening accuracy for late-life depression in primary care: a systematic review. J Fam Pract 52(12):956–964Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ayuso-Mateos JL, Nuevo R, Verdes E, Naidoo N, Chatterji S (2010) From depressive symptoms to depressive disorders: the relevance of thresholds. Br J Psychiatry 196(5):365–371. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.109.071191 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jun S. Lai
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  • Alexis J. Hure
    • 1
    • 2
  • Christopher Oldmeadow
    • 2
  • Mark McEvoy
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Julie Byles
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  • John Attia
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 5
  1. 1.School of Medicine and Public HealthUniversity of NewcastleCallaghanAustralia
  2. 2.Hunter Medical Research InstituteNew Lambton HeightsAustralia
  3. 3.Centre for Clinical Epidemiology and BiostatisticsUniversity of NewcastleCallaghanAustralia
  4. 4.Research Centre for Gender, Health and AgeingUniversity of NewcastleCallaghanAustralia
  5. 5.John Hunter HospitalNew Lambton HeightsAustralia

Personalised recommendations