European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 55, Issue 7, pp 2281–2293 | Cite as

Nut-enriched bread is an effective and acceptable vehicle to improve regular nut consumption

  • Asika Devi
  • Alexandra Chisholm
  • Andrew Gray
  • Siew Ling Tey
  • Destynee Williamson-Poutama
  • Sonya L. Cameron
  • Rachel C. BrownEmail author
Original Contribution



Consuming 30 g of nuts/day is recommended to reduce chronic disease. However, nut consumption appears far from ideal among several populations. A potential strategy to increase consumption is to add nuts to a staple, for example, bread. Whether the health benefits and acceptability of nuts persist in this form is currently unknown. Thus, we examined the effects of consuming three nut-enriched breads on postprandial glycaemia, satiety, gastrointestinal tolerance, dietary intakes, and acceptance.


In this controlled, crossover study, 32 participants were randomly allocated to receive one of four breads for 8 days each. Three breads contained either 30 g of finely sliced hazelnuts, 30 g semi-defatted hazelnut flour, or 15 g of each (amounts per 120 g bread) and were compared with a control nut-free bread. Blood glucose response was measured over 120 min, along with ratings of gastrointestinal discomfort. Appetite ratings and diet diaries were completed during each treatment period.


Area under the blood glucose curve was significantly lower for the nut breads compared to the control bread (all P < 0.001), with no significant differences between the nut breads (all P ≥ 0.130). There were no significant differences in satiety (all P ≥ 0.135) or gastrointestinal symptoms (all P ≥ 0.102) between the breads. Acceptance was highest for the finely sliced hazelnut bread. Furthermore, consuming hazelnut-enriched bread improved diet quality, increasing monounsaturated fat, vitamin E, and dietary fibre intakes.


Bread appears to be an effective and acceptable vehicle for increasing nut consumption, resulting in improved postprandial glycaemia and diet profiles. Long-term studies are now required.


Postprandial glycaemic response Nuts Satiety Appetite Gastrointestinal tolerance Acceptance 



The funding for the present study was provided by a University of Otago Research Grant. The authors would like to thank the participants for their commitment and enthusiasm in participating in this study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Human NutritionUniversity of OtagoDunedinNew Zealand
  2. 2.Department of Preventive and Social MedicineUniversity of OtagoDunedinNew Zealand
  3. 3.Clinical Nutrition Research CentreSingapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, A*STARSingaporeSingapore

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