Advertisement

Dietary patterns are associated with excess weight and abdominal obesity in a cohort of young Brazilian adults

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of the present study was to investigate whether dietary patterns are associated with excess weight and abdominal obesity among young adults (23–25 years).

Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted on 2061 participants of a birth cohort from Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, started in 1978–1979. Twenty-seven subjects with caloric intake outside ±3 standard deviation range were excluded, leaving 2034 individuals. Excess weight was defined as body mass index (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2), abdominal obesity as waist circumference (WC > 80 cm for women; >90 cm for men) and waist/hip ratio (WHR > 0.85 for women; >0.90 for men). Poisson regression with robust variance adjustment was used to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) adjusted for socio-demographic and lifestyle variables. Four dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis: healthy, traditional Brazilian, bar and energy dense.

Results

In the adjusted analysis, the bar pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of excess weight (PR 1.46; 95 % CI 1.23–1.73) and abdominal obesity based on WHR (PR 2.19; 95 % CI 1.59–3.01). The energy-dense pattern was associated with a lower prevalence of excess weight (PR 0.73; 95 % CI 0.61–0.88). Men with greater adherence to the traditional Brazilian pattern showed a lower prevalence of excess weight (PR 0.65; 95 % CI 0.51–0.82), but no association was found for women. There was no association between the healthy pattern and excess weight/abdominal obesity.

Conclusions

In this sample, the bar pattern was associated with higher prevalences of excess weight and abdominal obesity, while the energy-dense (for both genders) and traditional Brazilian (only for men) patterns were associated with lower prevalences of excess weight.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 199

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

References

  1. 1.

    Pou KM, Massaro JM, Hoffmann U et al (2009) Patterns of abdominal fat distribution. Diabetes Care 32(3):481–485

  2. 2.

    Huxley R, Mendis S, Zheleznyakov E et al (2010) Body mass index, waist circumference and wais:hip ratio as predictors of cardiovascular risk—a review of the literature. Eur J Clin Nutr 64:16–22

  3. 3.

    Bergman RN, Stefanovski D, Buchana TA et al (2011) A better index of body adiposity. Obesity 19(5):1083–1089

  4. 4.

    Finucane MM, Stevens GA, Cowan MJ et al (2011) National, regional, and global trends in body-mass index since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 960 country-years and 9.1 million participants. Lancet 377:557–567

  5. 5.

    Brazil (2010) Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares (POF 2008–2009)—Antropometria e estado nutricional de crianças, adolescentes e adultos no Brazil. Disponível em: http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/populacao/condicaodevida/pof/2008_2009_encaa/pof_20082009_encaa.pdf. Acesso em 26 de janeiro de 2011

  6. 6.

    Acheson KJ (2010) Carbohydrate for weight and metabolic control: Where do we stand? Nutrition 26:141–145

  7. 7.

    Perozzo G, Olinto MTA, Dias-da-Costa JS et al (2008) Associação dos padrões alimentares com obesidade geral e abdominal em mulheres residentes no Sul do Brazil. Cad Saude Publica 24:2427–2430

  8. 8.

    Du H, Van der ADL, Boshuizen HC et al (2010) Dietary fiber and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference in European men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 91:329–336

  9. 9.

    Hu FB (2002) Dietary pattern analysis: a new direction in nutritional epidemiology. Curr Opin Lipidol 13:3–9

  10. 10.

    Hearty AP, Gibney MJ (2008) Comparison of cluster and principal component analysis techniques to derive dietary patterns in Irish adults. Br J Nutr 101:598–608

  11. 11.

    Sánchez-Villegas A, Martínez-González MA, Delgado-Rodríguez MA et al (2003) Gender, age, socio-economic and lifestyle factors associated with major dietary patterns in the Spanish Project SUN (Sguimento Universidad de Navarra). Eur J Clin Nutr 57:285–292

  12. 12.

    Langsetmo L, Poliquin S, Hanley DA et al (2010) Dietary patterns in Canadian men and women ages 25 and older: relationship to demographics, body mass index and bone mineral density. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. doi:10.1186/1471-2474-11-20

  13. 13.

    Denova-Gutiérrez E, Castañón S, Talayera JO et al (2011) Dietary patterns are associated with different indexes of adiposity and obesity in an urban. J Nutr 141:921–927

  14. 14.

    Gimeno SGA, Mondini L, Moraes AS et al (2011) Padrões de consumo de alimentos e fatores associados em adultos jovens de Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil: Projeto OBEDIAPR. Cad Saude Publica 27:533–545

  15. 15.

    Naja F, Nasreddine L, Italini L et al (2011) Dietary patterns and their association with obesity and sociodemographic factors in a national sample of Lebanese adults. Public Health Nutr 14:1570–1578

  16. 16.

    Olinto MTA, Gigante DP, Horta B et al (2012) Major dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors among young Brazilian adults. Eur J Nutr 51:281–291

  17. 17.

    Maskarinec G, Novotny R, Tasaki K (2000) Dietary patterns are associated with body mass index in multiethnic women. J Nutr 130:3068–3072

  18. 18.

    Gordon-Larsen P, Adair LS, Nelson MC et al (2004) Five-year obesity incidence in the transition period between adolescence and adulthood: the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescence Health. Am J Clin Nutr 80(3):569–575

  19. 19.

    Singh AS, Mulder C, Twisk JWR et al (2008) Tracing of childhood overweight into adulthood: a systematic review of the literature. Obes Rev 9(5):474–488

  20. 20.

    Barbieri MA, Bettiol H, Silva AAM et al (2006) Health in early adulthood: the contribution of the 1978/79 Ribeirão Preto birth cohort. Braz J Med Biol Res 39:1041–1055

  21. 21.

    Guidelines for data processing and analysis of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) [November 23, 2011] IPAQ web site http://www.ipaq.ki.se/dloads/IPAQ%20LS%20Scoring%20Protocols_Nov05.pdf. Published Nov 2005

  22. 22.

    Ribeiro AB, Cardoso MA (2002) Construção de um questionário de frequência alimentar como subsídio para programas de prevenção de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis. Rev Nutr 15:239–245

  23. 23.

    Molina MC, Bettiol H, Barbieri MA et al (2007) Food consumption by young adults living in Ribeirão Preto, SP, 2002/2004. Braz J Med Biol Res 40:1257–1266

  24. 24.

    Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística—IBGE (1999) Tabelas de Composição de Alimentos/IBGE—Rio de Janeiro/RJ—5th edn, p 137

  25. 25.

    Olinto MTA, Willett WC, Gigante DP et al (2010) Sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics in relation to dietary patterns among young Brazilian adults. Public Health Nutr 14:150–159

  26. 26.

    Eshriqui I, Vilela AAF, Rebelo F et al (2014) Gestational dietary patterns are not associated with blood pressure changes during pregnancy and early postpartum in a Brazilian prospective cohort. Eur J Nutr. doi:10.1007/s00394-014-0819-4

  27. 27.

    Callaway CW, Chumlea WC, Bouchard C, Himes JH, Lohman TG, Martin AD et al (1988) Circumferences. In: Lohman TG, Roche AF, Martorell R (eds) Anthropometric standardization reference manual. Human Kinetics Books, Champaign, pp 39–54

  28. 28.

    Gordon CC, Chumlea WC, Roche AF (1988) Stature, recumbent length, and weight. In: Lohman TG, Roche AF, Martorell R (eds) Anthropometric standardization reference manual. Human Kinetics Books, Champaign, pp 3–8

  29. 29.

    Hair JF, Black WC, Babin BJ et al (2010) Multivariate data analysis, 7th edn. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs

  30. 30.

    Newby PK, Tucker KL (2004) Empirically derived eating patterns using factor or cluster analysis: a review. Nutr Rev 62:177–203

  31. 31.

    Marchioni DML, Latorre MRDO, Eluf-Neto J et al (2005) Identification of dietary patterns using factor analysis in an epidemiological study in São Paulo. Sao Paulo Med J 123:124–127

  32. 32.

    Arruda SPM, Silva AAM, Kac G et al (2014) Socioeconomic and demographic factors are associated with dietary patterns in cohort of Young Brazilian adults. BMC Public Health 14:654

  33. 33.

    Rezazadeh A, Rashidkhani B, Omidvar N (2010) Association of major dietary patterns with socioeconomic and lifestyle factors of adult women living in Tehran, Iran. Nutrition 26:337–341

  34. 34.

    Shulze MB, Hoffmann K, Kroke A et al (2001) Dietary patterns and their association with food and nutrient intake in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)—Postdam study. Br J Nutr 85:363–373

  35. 35.

    WHO (World Health Organization) (1998) Report of a WHO consultation on obesity. Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. WHO, Geneva

  36. 36.

    Coutinho W (1999) Consenso latino-americano de obesidade. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab 43:21–67

  37. 37.

    Alberti KG, Zimmet P, Shaw J (2005) The metabolic syndrome—a new worldwide definition. Lancet 366:1059–1062

  38. 38.

    Peace KE, Chen D (2010) Clinical trial methodology. Chapman & Hall/CRC, Boca Raton

  39. 39.

    Esmaillzadeh A, Azadbakht L (2008) Major dietary patterns in relation to general obesity and central adiposity among Iranian women. J Nutr 138:358–363

  40. 40.

    Eilat-Adar S, Mete M, Fretts A et al (2013) Dietary patterns and their association with cardiovascular risk factors in a populations undergoing lifestyle changes: the Strong Hearty Study. Nutr Metab Cardiovas 23:528–535

  41. 41.

    Newby PK, Muller D, Hallfrisch J et al (2004) Food patterns measured by factor analysis and anthropometric changes in adults. Am J Clin Nutr 80(2):504–513

  42. 42.

    Mendez MA, Popkin BM, Jakszyn P et al (2006) Adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with reduced 3-year incidence of obesity. J Nutr 136:2934–2938

  43. 43.

    Aekplakorn W, Satheannoppakao W, Putwatana P et al (2015) Dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome in Thai adults. J Nutr Metab. doi:10.1155/2015/468759

  44. 44.

    Sicheiri R (2002) Dietary patterns and their associations with obesity in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro. Obes Res 10:42–48

  45. 45.

    Cunha DB, Almeida RMVR, Sichieri R et al (2010) Association of dietary patterns with BMI and waist circumference in a low-income neighborhood in Brazil. Br J Nutr 104:908–913

  46. 46.

    Lenz A, Olinto MTA, Dias-da-Costa JS et al (2009) Socioeconomic patterns of women living, demographic and lifestyle factors associated with dietary of women living in Southern Brazil. Cad Saude Publica 25:1297–1306

  47. 47.

    Neumann AICP, Martins IS, Marcopito LF et al (2007) Padrões alimentares associados a fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares entre residentes de um município Brasileiro. Rev Panam Salud Publica 22:329–339

  48. 48.

    Sun J, Buys NJ, Hills AP et al (2014) Dietary pattern and its association with the prevalence of obesity, hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors among Chinese older adults. Int J Environ Res Public Health 11:3956–3971

  49. 49.

    Hsiao PY, Mitchell DC, Coffman DL et al (2013) Dietary patterns and relationship to obesity-related health outcomes and mortality in adults 75 years of age or greater. J Nutr Health Aging 17(6):566–572

  50. 50.

    Hu FB, Rimm E, Smith-Warner SA et al (1999) Reproducibility and validity of dietary pattern assessed with a Food-Frequency Questionnaire. Am J Clin Nutr 69:243–249

Download references

Acknowledgments

Financial support for the present study was provided by Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), by the University of São Paulo and by the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) (Grant Number 00/09508-7).

Author contributions

Machado Arruda and Soraia Pinheiro participated in the stages of data analysis and was responsible for writing the manuscript; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da participated in the stage of data analysis and critical review of the manuscript; Kac, Gilberto, Vilela, Ana Amélia Freitas, and Goldani, Marcelo contributed to the discussion and critical revision of the manuscript; Bettiol, Heloisa and Barbieri, Marco Antônio were responsible for the original design of the project and participated in the discussion and critical revision of the manuscript.

Author information

Correspondence to Soraia Pinheiro Machado Arruda.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that there was no conflict of interest.

Ethical aspects

The study was conducted according to the directives established in the Declaration of Helsinki, and all procedures involving human being were approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Brazil. All persons gave their informed consent prior to their inclusion in the study.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOC 302 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Machado Arruda, S.P., da Silva, A.A.M., Kac, G. et al. Dietary patterns are associated with excess weight and abdominal obesity in a cohort of young Brazilian adults. Eur J Nutr 55, 2081–2091 (2016) doi:10.1007/s00394-015-1022-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Dietary patterns
  • Excess weight
  • Abdominal obesity
  • Young adults