European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 55, Issue 5, pp 1891–1900 | Cite as

Association between inflammatory potential of diet and mortality among women in the Swedish Mammography Cohort

  • Nitin ShivappaEmail author
  • Holly Harris
  • Alicja Wolk
  • James R. Hebert
Original Contribution



Diet and dietary components have been studied previously in relation to mortality; however, little is known about the relationship between the inflammatory potential of overall diet and mortality.

Materials and methods

We examined the association between the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) and mortality among 33,747 participants in the population-based Swedish Mammography Cohort. The DII score was calculated based on dietary information obtained from a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Mortality was determined through linkage to the Swedish Cause of Death Registry through 2013. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR). During 15 years of follow-up, 7095 deaths were identified, including 1996 due to cancer, 602 of which were due to digestive-tract cancer, and 2399 due to cardiovascular disease.


After adjusting for age, energy intake, education, alcohol intake, physical activity, BMI, and smoking status, analyses revealed a positive association between higher DII score and all-cause mortality. When used as a continuous variable (range −4.19 to 5.10), DII score was associated with all-cause mortality (HRContinuous = 1.05; 95 % CI 1.01–1.09) and digestive-tract cancer mortality (HRContinuous = 1.15; 95 % CI 1.02–1.29). Comparing subjects in the highest quintile of DII (≥1.91) versus the lowest quintile (DII ≤ −0.67), a significant association was observed for all-cause mortality (HR = 1.25; 95 % CI 1.07–1.47, P trend = 0.003).


These results indicate that a pro-inflammatory diet, as indicated by higher DII score, was associated with all-cause and digestive-tract cancer mortality.


Dietary Inflammatory Index Mortality Swedish women 




Drs. Shivappa and Hébert were supported by Grant Number R44DK103377 from the US National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Dr. Wolk was supported by the Distinguished Professor Award from Karolinska Institute. The Swedish Mammography Cohort is maintained by grants from the Swedish Research Council Committee for infrastructure. Dr Harris was supported by a grant from the Swedish Cancer Foundation.


Dr. James R. Hébert owns controlling interest in Connecting Health Innovations LLC (CHI), a company planning to license the right to his invention of the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) from the University of South Carolina in order to develop computer and smart phone applications for patient counseling and dietary intervention in clinical settings. Dr. Nitin Shivappa is an employee of CHI. The subject matter of this paper will not have any direct bearing on that work, nor has that activity exerted any influence on this project.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have declared no conflicts of interest.


  1. 1.
    Keibel A, Singh V, Sharma MC (2009) Inflammation, microenvironment, and the immune system in cancer progression. Curr Pharm Des 15(17):1949–1955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pan MH, Lai CS, Dushenkov S, Ho CT (2009) Modulation of inflammatory genes by natural dietary bioactive compounds. J Agric Food Chem 57(11):4467–4477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Thun MJ, Henley SJ, Gansler T (2004) Inflammation and cancer: an epidemiological perspective. Novartis Found Symp 256:6–21; discussion 22–28, 49–52, 266–269Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Warnberg J, Gomez-Martinez S, Romeo J, Diaz LE, Marcos A (2009) Nutrition, inflammation, and cognitive function. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1153:164–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baniyash M, Sade-Feldman M, Kanterman J (2014) Chronic inflammation and cancer: suppressing the suppressors. Cancer Immunol Immunother 63(1):11–20. doi: 10.1007/s00262-013-1468-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ferencik M, Ebringer L (2003) Modulatory effects of selenium and zinc on the immune system. Folia Microbiol 48(3):417–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lin OS (2009) Acquired risk factors for colorectal cancer. Methods Mol Biol 472:361–372. doi: 10.1007/978-1-60327-492-0_16 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wogan GN, Hecht SS, Felton JS, Conney AH, Loeb LA (2004) Environmental and chemical carcinogenesis. Semin Cancer Biol 14(6):473–486. doi: 10.1016/j.semcancer.2004.06.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ouchi N, Parker JL, Lugus JJ, Walsh K (2011) Adipokines in inflammation and metabolic disease. Nat Rev Immunol 11(2):85–97. doi: 10.1038/nri2921 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Calabro P, Golia E, Yeh ET (2009) CRP and the risk of atherosclerotic events. Semin Immunopathol 31(1):79–94. doi: 10.1007/s00281-009-0149-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Miller MA, Cappuccio FP (2007) Inflammation, sleep, obesity and cardiovascular disease. Curr Vasc Pharmacol 5(2):93–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chung Y-C, Chang Y-F (2003) Serum interleukin-6 levels reflect the disease status of colorectal cancer. J Surg Oncol 83(4):222–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Terzic J, Grivennikov S, Karin E, Karin M (2010) Inflammation and colon cancer. Gastroenterology 138 (6):2101–2114 e2105Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Toriola AT, Cheng TY, Neuhouser ML, Wener MH, Zheng Y, Brown E, Miller JW, Song X, Beresford SA, Gunter MJ, Caudill MA, Ulrich CM (2013) Biomarkers of inflammation are associated with colorectal cancer risk in women but are not suitable as early detection markers. Int J Cancer 132(11):2648–2658. doi: 10.1002/ijc.27942 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    World Health Organization (2008) The global burden of disease: 2004 update. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    de Mello VD, Schwab U, Kolehmainen M, Koenig W, Siloaho M, Poutanen K, Mykkanen H, Uusitupa M (2011) A diet high in fatty fish, bilberries and wholegrain products improves markers of endothelial function and inflammation in individuals with impaired glucose metabolism in a randomised controlled trial: the Sysdimet study. Diabetologia 54(11):2755–2767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Khoo J, Piantadosi C, Duncan R, Worthley SG, Jenkins A, Noakes M, Worthley MI, Lange K, Wittert GA (2011) Comparing effects of a low-energy diet and a high-protein low-fat diet on sexual and endothelial function, urinary tract symptoms, and inflammation in obese diabetic men. J Sex Med 8(10):2868–2875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Luciano M, Mottus R, Starr JM, McNeill G, Jia X, Craig LC, Deary IJ (2012) Depressive symptoms and diet: their effects on prospective inflammation levels in the elderly. Brain Behav Immun 26(5):717–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chang AR, Lazo M, Appel LJ, Gutierrez OM, Grams ME (2014) High dietary phosphorus intake is associated with all-cause mortality: results from NHANES III. Am J Clin Nutr 99(2):320–327. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.073148 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cheung CL, Sahni S, Cheung BM, Sing CW, Wong IC (2014) Vitamin K intake and mortality in people with chronic kidney disease from NHANES III. Clin Nutr. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2014.03.011 Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cohen HW, Hailpern SM, Alderman MH (2008) Sodium intake and mortality follow-up in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). J Gen Intern Med 23(9):1297–1302. doi: 10.1007/s11606-008-0645-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Deng X, Song Y, Manson JE, Signorello LB, Zhang SM, Shrubsole MJ, Ness RM, Seidner DL, Dai Q (2013) Magnesium, vitamin D status and mortality: results from US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001 to 2006 and NHANES III. BMC Med 11:187. doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-11-187 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shivappa N, Steck SE, Hurley TG, Hussey JR, Hebert JR (2014) Designing and developing a literature-derived, population-based dietary inflammatory index. Pub Health Nutr 17(8):1689–1696. doi: 10.1017/S1368980013002115 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Shivappa N, Steck SE, Hurley TG, Hussey JR, Ma Y, Ockene IS, Tabung F, Hebert JR (2014) A population-based dietary inflammatory index predicts levels of C-reactive protein in the Seasonal Variation of Blood Cholesterol Study (SEASONS). Pub Health Nutr 17(8):1825–1833. doi: 10.1017/S1368980013002565 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wirth MD, Burch J, Shivappa N, Violanti JM, Burchfiel CM, Fekedulegn D, Andrew ME, Hartley TA, Miller DB, Mnatsakanova A, Charles LE, Steck SE, Hurley TG, Vena JE, Hebert JR (2014) Association of a dietary inflammatory index with inflammatory indices and metabolic syndrome among police officers. J Occup Environ Med 56(9):986–989. doi: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000000213 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Shivappa N, Hebert JR, Rietzschel ER, De Buyzere ML, Langlois M, Debruyne E, Marcos A, Huybrechts I (2015) Associations between dietary inflammatory index and inflammatory markers in the Asklepios Study. Br J Nutr 113(4):665–671. doi: 10.1017/S000711451400395X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tabung FK, Steck SE, Zhang J, Ma Y, Liese AD, Agalliu I, Hingle M, Hou L, Hurley TG, Jiao L, Martin LW, Millen AE, Park HL, Rosal MC, Shikany JM, Shivappa N, Ockene JK, Hebert JR (2015) Construct validation of the dietary inflammatory index among postmenopausal women. Ann Epidemiol. doi: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2015.03.009 Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wood LG, Shivappa N, Berthon BS, Gibson PG, Hebert JR (2015) Dietary inflammatory index is related to asthma risk, lung function and systemic inflammation in asthma. Clin Exp Allergy 45(1):177–183. doi: 10.1111/cea.12323 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Alkerwi A, Shivappa N, Crichton G, Hebert JR (2014) No significant independent relationships with cardiometabolic biomarkers were detected in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study population. Nutr Res 34(12):1058–1065. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2014.07.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ruiz-Canela M, Zazpe I, Shivappa N, Hebert JR, Sanchez-Tainta A, Corella D, Salas-Salvado J, Fito M, Lamuela-Raventos RM, Rekondo J, Fernandez-Crehuet J, Fiol M, Santos-Lozano JM, Serra-Majem L, Pinto X, Martinez JA, Ros E, Estruch R, Martinez-Gonzalez MA (2015) Dietary inflammatory index and anthropometric measures of obesity in a population sample at high cardiovascular risk from the PREDIMED (PREvencion con DIeta MEDiterranea) trial. Br J Nutr 1–12. doi: 10.1017/S0007114514004401
  31. 31.
    Maisonneuve P, Shivappa N, Hébert J, Bellomi M, Rampinelli C, Bertolotti R, Spaggiari L, Palli D, Veronesi G, Gnagnarella P (2015) Dietary inflammatory index and risk of lung cancer and other respiratory conditions among heavy smokers in the COSMOS screening study. Eur J Nutr 1–11. doi: 10.1007/s00394-015-0920-3
  32. 32.
    Zamora-Ros R, Shivappa N, Steck SE, Canzian F, Landi S, Alonso MH, Hebert JR, Moreno V (2015) Dietary inflammatory index and inflammatory gene interactions in relation to colorectal cancer risk in the Bellvitge colorectal cancer case–control study. Genes Nutr 10(1):447. doi: 10.1007/s12263-014-0447-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Shivappa N, Zucchetto A, Montella M, Serraino D, Steck SE, La Vecchia C, Hebert JR (2015) Inflammatory potential of diet and risk of colorectal cancer in a case-control study from Italy. Br J Nutr 114(1):152–158. doi: 10.1017/S0007114515001828 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shivappa N, Prizment AE, Blair CK, Jacobs DR Jr, Steck SE, Hebert JR (2014) Dietary inflammatory index and risk of colorectal cancer in the Iowa Women’s Health Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 23(11):2383–2392. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-0537 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tabung FK, Steck SE, Ma Y, Liese AD, Zhang J, Caan B, Hou L, Johnson KC, Mossavar-Rahmani Y, Shivappa N, Wactawski-Wende J, Ockene JK, Hebert JR (2015) The association between dietary inflammatory index and risk of colorectal cancer among postmenopausal women: results from the Women’s Health Initiative. Cancer Causes Control 26(3):399–408. doi: 10.1007/s10552-014-0515-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wirth MD, Shivappa N, Steck SE, Hurley TG, Hébert JR (2015) The dietary inflammatory index is associated with colorectal cancer in the National Institutes of Health–American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study. Br J Nutr FirstView 1–9. doi: 10.1017/S000711451500104X
  37. 37.
    Shivappa N, Bosetti C, Zucchetto A, Serraino D, La Vecchia C, Hebert JR (2014) Dietary inflammatory index and risk of pancreatic cancer in an Italian case-control study. Br J Nutr 1–7. doi: 10.1017/S0007114514003626
  38. 38.
    Shivappa N, Bosetti C, Zucchetto A, Montella M, Serraino D, La Vecchia C, Hebert JR (2014) Association between dietary inflammatory index and prostate cancer among Italian men. Br J Nutr 1–6. doi: 10.1017/S0007114514003572
  39. 39.
    Shivappa N, Jackson M, Bennett F, Hebert J (2015) Increased Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) is associated with increased risk of prostate cancer in Jamaican Men. Nutr Cancer. doi: 10.1080/01635581.2015.1062117
  40. 40.
    Lu Y, Shivappa N, Lin Y, Lagergren J, Hebert JR (2015) Diet-related inflammation and esophageal cancer by histological type: a nationwide case–control study in Sweden. Eur J Nutr. doi: 10.1007/s00394-015-0987-x Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Shivappa N, Zucchetto A, Serraino D, Rossi M, La Vecchia C, Hebert JR (2015) Dietary Inflammatory Index and risk of esophageal squamous cell cancer in a case-control study from Italy. Cancer Causes Control. doi: 10.1007/s10552-015-0636-y
  42. 42.
    Shivappa N, Blair C, Prizment A, Jacobs D Jr, Steck S, Hébert J (2015) Association between inflammatory potential of diet and mortality in the Iowa Women’s Health study. Eur J Nutr 1–12. doi: 10.1007/s00394-015-0967-1
  43. 43.
    Bruce WR, Wolever TM, Giacca A (2000) Mechanisms linking diet and colorectal cancer: the possible role of insulin resistance. Nutr Cancer 37(1):19–26. doi: 10.1207/S15327914NC3701_2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bruce WR, Giacca A, Medline A (2000) Possible mechanisms relating diet and risk of colon cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 9(12):1271–1279Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Wolk A, Larsson SC, Johansson J-E, Ekman P (2006) Long-term fatty fish consumption and renal cell carcinoma incidence in women. JAMA 296(11):1371–1376. doi: 10.1001/jama.296.11.1371 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rautiainen S, Levitan EB, Mittleman MA, Wolk A (2015) Fruit and vegetable intake and rate of heart failure: a population-based prospective cohort of women. Eur J Heart Fail 17(1):20–26. doi: 10.1002/ejhf.191 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bergström L, Kylberg E, Hagman U, Erikson H, Bruce Å (1991) The food composition database KOST: the National Food Adminstration’s Information System for nutritive values of food. Vår Fö da 43:439–447Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Willett W, Stampfer MJ (1986) Total energy intake: implications for epidemiologic analyses. Am J Epidemiol 124(1):17–27Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Messerer M, Johansson S-E, Wolk A (2004) The Validity of Questionnaire-based micronutrient intake estimates is increased by including dietary supplement use in Swedish men. J Nutr 134(7):1800–1805Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ludvigsson J, Otterblad-Olausson P, Pettersson B, Ekbom A (2009) The Swedish personal identity number: possibilities and pitfalls in healthcare and medical research. Eur J Epidemiol 24(11):659–667. doi: 10.1007/s10654-009-9350-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Erlinger TP, Platz EA, Rifai N, Helzlsouer KJ (2004) C-reactive protein and the risk of incident colorectal cancer. JAMA 291(5):585–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Gunter MJ, Stolzenberg-Solomon R, Cross AJ, Leitzmann MF, Weinstein S, Wood RJ, Virtamo J, Taylor PR, Albanes D, Sinha R (2006) A prospective study of serum C-reactive protein and colorectal cancer risk in men. Cancer Res 66(4):2483–2487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Otani T, Iwasaki M, Sasazuki S, Inoue M, Tsugane S, Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study G (2006) Plasma C-reactive protein and risk of colorectal cancer in a nested case-control study: Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 15(4):690–695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Nikiteas NI, Tzanakis N, Gazouli M, Rallis G, Daniilidis K, Theodoropoulos G, Kostakis A, Peros G (2005) Serum IL-6, TNFalpha and CRP levels in Greek colorectal cancer patients: prognostic implications. World J Gastroenterol 11(11):1639–1643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Herszenyi L, Tulassay Z (2010) Epidemiology of gastrointestinal and liver tumors. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 14(4):249–258Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, Dikshit R, Eser S, Mathers C, Rebelo M, Parkin DM, Forman D, Bray F (2013) GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.1, cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: IARC CancerBase no. 11. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon. Accessed on 23/01/2015
  57. 57.
    Kennedy ET, Ohls J, Carlson S, Fleming K (1995) The Healthy Eating Index: design and applications. J Am Diet Assoc 95(10):1103–1108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Miller PE, Lazarus P, Lesko SM, Muscat JE, Harper G, Cross AJ, Sinha R, Ryczak K, Escobar G, Mauger DT, Hartman TJ (2010) Diet index-based and empirically derived dietary patterns are associated with colorectal cancer risk. J Nutr 140(7):1267–1273. doi: 10.3945/jn.110.121780 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Panagiotakos DB, Pitsavos C, Stefanadis C (2006) Dietary patterns: a Mediterranean diet score and its relation to clinical and biological markers of cardiovascular disease risk. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 16(8):559–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Mitrou PN, Kipnis V, Thiebaut AC, Reedy J, Subar AF, Wirfalt E, Flood A, Mouw T, Hollenbeck AR, Leitzmann MF, Schatzkin A (2007) Mediterranean dietary pattern and prediction of all-cause mortality in a US population: results from the NIH-AARP diet and Health Study. Arch Intern Med 167(22):2461–2468. doi: 10.1001/archinte.167.22.2461 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rathod AD, Bharadwaj AS, Badheka AO, Kizilbash M, Afonso L (2012) Healthy Eating Index and mortality in a nationally representative elderly cohort. Arch Intern Med 172(3):275–277. doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2011.1031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Akbaraly TN, Ferrie JE, Berr C, Brunner EJ, Head J, Marmot MG, Singh-Manoux A, Ritchie K, Shipley MJ, Kivimaki M (2011) Alternative Healthy Eating Index and mortality over 18 y of follow-up: results from the Whitehall II cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 94(1):247–253. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.111.013128 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Reedy J, Krebs-Smith SM, Miller PE, Liese AD, Kahle LL, Park Y, Subar AF (2014) Higher diet quality is associated with decreased risk of all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer mortality among older adults. J Nutr. doi: 10.3945/jn.113.189407 Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Warburton DE, Nicol CW, Bredin SS (2006) Health benefits of physical activity: the evidence. Can Med Assoc J 174(6):801–809. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.051351 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Van Horn L (1997) Fiber, lipids, and coronary heart disease. A statement for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee, American Heart Association. Circulation 95(12):2701–2704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    van Aerde MA, Soedamah-Muthu SS, Geleijnse JM, Snijder MB, Nijpels G, Stehouwer CD, Dekker JM (2013) Dairy intake in relation to cardiovascular disease mortality and all-cause mortality: the Hoorn Study. Eur J Nutr 52(2):609–616. doi: 10.1007/s00394-012-0363-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kroenke CH, Kwan ML, Sweeney C, Castillo A, Caan BJ (2013) High- and low-fat dairy intake, recurrence, and mortality after breast cancer diagnosis. J Natl Cancer Inst 105(9):616–623. doi: 10.1093/jnci/djt027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Li K, Kaaks R, Linseisen J, Rohrmann S (2011) Dietary calcium and magnesium intake in relation to cancer incidence and mortality in a German prospective cohort (EPIC-Heidelberg). Cancer Causes Control 22(10):1375–1382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Pocobelli G, Peters U, Kristal AR, White E (2009) Use of supplements of multivitamins, vitamin C, and vitamin E in relation to mortality. Am J Epidemiol 170(4):472–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Esmaillzadeh A, Kimiagar M, Mehrabi Y, Azadbakht L, Hu FB, Willett WC (2007) Dietary patterns and markers of systemic inflammation among Iranian Women. J Nutr 137(4):992–998Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Festa A, D’Agostino R, Howard G, Mykkänen L, Tracy RP, Haffner SM (2000) Chronic subclinical inflammation as part of the insulin resistance syndrome: the insulin resistance atherosclerosis study (IRAS). Circulation 102(1):42–47. doi: 10.1161/01.cir.102.1.42 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Bellavia A, Larsson SC, Bottai M, Wolk A, Orsini N (2013) Fruit and vegetable consumption and all-cause mortality: a dose–response analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 98(2):454–459. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.112.056119 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Steffen LM, Jacobs DR Jr, Stevens J, Shahar E, Carithers T, Folsom AR (2003) Associations of whole-grain, refined-grain, and fruit and vegetable consumption with risks of all-cause mortality and incident coronary artery disease and ischemic stroke: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Am J Clin Nutr 78(3):383–390Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Oyebode O, Gordon-Dseagu V, Walker A, Mindell JS (2014) Fruit and vegetable consumption and all-cause, cancer and CVD mortality: analysis of Health Survey for England data. J Epidemiol Community Health 68(9):856–862. doi: 10.1136/jech-2013-203500 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Lo YT, Chang YH, Wahlqvist ML, Huang HB, Lee MS (2012) Spending on vegetable and fruit consumption could reduce all-cause mortality among older adults. Nutr J 11:113. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-11-113 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Harris HR, Bergkvist L, Wolk A (2013) Vitamin C intake and breast cancer mortality in a cohort of Swedish women. Br J Cancer 109(1):257–264. doi: 10.1038/bjc.2013.269 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Harris HR, Bergkvist L, Wolk A (2012) Selenium intake and breast cancer mortality in a cohort of Swedish women. Breast Cancer Res Treat 134(3):1269–1277. doi: 10.1007/s10549-012-2139-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Bellavia A, Larsson SC, Bottai M, Wolk A, Orsini N (2014) Differences in survival associated with processed and with nonprocessed red meat consumption. Am J Clin Nutr 16:086249Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Andersen V, Egeberg R, Tjonneland A, Vogel U (2012) Interaction between interleukin-10 (IL-10) polymorphisms and dietary fibre in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in a Danish case-cohort study. BMC Cancer. doi: 10.1186/1471-2407-12-183 Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Schwab S, Zierer A, Schneider A, Heier M, Koenig W, Kastenmuller G, Waldenberger M, Peters A, Thorand B (2015) Vitamin E supplementation is associated with lower levels of C-reactive protein only in higher dosages and combined with other antioxidants: The Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) F4 study. Br J Nutr 113(11):1782–1791. doi: 10.1017/S0007114515000902 (Epub 0007114515002015 Apr 0007114515000921) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Xun P, Liu K, Morris JS, Daviglus ML, Stevens J, Jacobs DR Jr, He K (2010) Associations of toenail selenium levels with inflammatory biomarkers of fibrinogen, high-sensitivity c-reactive protein, and interleukin-6: the CARDIA trace element study. Am J Epidemiol 171(7):793–800. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwq1001 (Epub 2010 Mar 1010) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Stepaniak U, Micek A, Grosso G, Stefler D, Topor-Madry R, Kubinova R, Malyutina S, Peasey A, Pikhart H, Nikitin Y, Bobak M, Pajak A (2015) Antioxidant vitamin intake and mortality in three Central and Eastern European urban populations: the HAPIEE study. Eur J Nutr. doi: 10.1007/s00394-015-0871-8 Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Rohrmann S, Overvad K, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Jakobsen MU, Egeberg R, Tjonneland A, Nailler L, Boutron-Ruault MC, Clavel-Chapelon F, Krogh V, Palli D, Panico S, Tumino R, Ricceri F, Bergmann MM, Boeing H, Li K, Kaaks R, Khaw KT, Wareham NJ, Crowe FL, Key TJ, Naska A, Trichopoulou A, Trichopoulos D, Leenders M, Peeters PH, Engeset D, Parr CL, Skeie G, Jakszyn P, Sanchez MJ, Huerta JM, Redondo ML, Barricarte A, Amiano P, Drake I, Sonestedt E, Hallmans G, Johansson I, Fedirko V, Romieux I, Ferrari P, Norat T, Vergnaud AC, Riboli E, Linseisen J (2013) Meat consumption and mortality—results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. BMC Med 11:63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Hansson LM, Galanti MR (2000) Diet-associated risks of disease and self-reported food consumption: how shall we treat partial nonresponse in a food frequency questionnaire? Nutr Cancer 36(1):1–6. doi: 10.1207/S15327914NC3601_1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Jain M, Howe GR, Harrison L, Miller AB (1989) A study of repeatability of dietary data over a seven-year period. Am J Epidemiol 129(2):422–429Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Jensen OM, Wahrendorf J, Rosenqvist A, Geser A (1984) The reliability of questionnaire-derived historical dietary information and temporal stability of food habits in individuals. Am J Epidemiol 120(2):281–290Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Lindsted KD, Kuzma JW (1989) Long-term (24-year) recall reliability in cancer cases and controls using a 21-item food frequency questionnaire. Nutr Cancer 12(2):135–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Mursu J, Steffen LM, Meyer KA, Duprez D, Jacobs DR Jr (2013) Diet quality indexes and mortality in postmenopausal women: the Iowa Women’s Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 98(2):444–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Sijtsma FP, Meyer KA, Steffen LM, Shikany JM, Van Horn L, Harnack L, Kromhout D, Jacobs DR Jr (2012) Longitudinal trends in diet and effects of sex, race, and education on dietary quality score change: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study. Am J Clin Nutr 95(3):580–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Thompson FE, Metzner HL, Lamphiear DE, Hawthorne VM (1990) Characteristics of individuals and long term reproducibility of dietary reports: the Tecumseh Diet Methodology Study. J Clin Epidemiol 43(11):1169–1178CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nitin Shivappa
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Holly Harris
    • 3
    • 4
  • Alicja Wolk
    • 3
  • James R. Hebert
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Cancer Prevention and Control ProgramUniversity of South CarolinaColumbiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public HealthUniversity of South CarolinaColumbiaUSA
  3. 3.Division of Nutritional Epidemiology, The National Institute for Environmental MedicineKarolinska InstitutetStockholmSweden
  4. 4.Obstetrics and Gynecology Epidemiology CenterBrigham and Women’s HospitalBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations