Effects of wheat bran extract rich in arabinoxylan oligosaccharides and resistant starch on overnight glucose tolerance and markers of gut fermentation in healthy young adults
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Specific combinations of dietary fiber (DF) have been observed to result in improved glucose tolerance at a subsequent standardized breakfast. Arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (AXOS) are considered as DF with prebiotic potential, but so far no studies have investigated their metabolic effects in humans. This randomized cross-over study evaluated the overnight impact of breads containing AXOS-rich wheat bran extract and resistant starch (RS, Hi-Maize), separately or combined, on glucose tolerance, related metabolic parameters and markers of gut fermentation in healthy subjects.
Evening reference and test products were: (1) reference white wheat flour bread (WWB), WWB supplemented with (2) AXOS and RS (WWB + AXOS + RS), (3) an increased content of either AXOS (WWB + hiAXOS) or (4) RS (WWB + hiRS). At the subsequent standardized breakfast, blood was sampled for 3 h to monitor glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids, glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and GLP-2. Breath hydrogen (H2) and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) were measured as markers of gut fermentation, and subjective appetite was rated using visual analog scales.
Dose-dependent decreases in glucose responses were observed with increased AXOS over the duration of 3 h. Insulin sensitivity index was improved in the morning after the WWB + hiAXOS evening meal. An increase in breath H2 concentration and circulating SCFA was observed in the morning after both evening meals containing AXOS.
The present study indicates that AXOS have the potential of improving glucose tolerance in an overnight perspective and suggested mechanisms are improved insulin sensitivity and increased gut fermentation.
KeywordsArabinoxylan oligosaccharides Resistant starch Glucose tolerance Gut fermentation Healthy subjects Overnight
This publication was financially supported by the European Commission in the Communities 6th Framework Programme, Project HEALTHGRAIN (FOOD-CT-2005-514008). It reflects the author’s views, and the Community is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained in this publication. This publication was also financially supported by the Lund University Antidiabetic Food Centre, a VINNOVA VINN Excellence Centre.
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Conflict of interest
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
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