European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 55, Issue 4, pp 1389–1396 | Cite as

Effects of low-fat milk consumption at breakfast on satiety and short-term energy intake in 10- to 12-year-old obese boys

  • Sanaz Mehrabani
  • Seyyed Morteza Safavi
  • Sepideh Mehrabani
  • Mehdi Asemi
  • Awat Feizi
  • Nick Bellissimo
  • Amin Salehi-AbargoueiEmail author
Original Contribution



Although controversy exists, some researchers have proposed that dairy products increase the sense of satiety and decrease energy intake; however, data about these effects are lacking in children. Our objective was to assess the effect of low-fat milk compared with iso-volumic and iso-volumic/iso-energetic controls on satiety and energy intake at lunch in obese boys using a randomized three-way crossover controlled clinical trial.


Thirty-four obese boys aged 10–12 years were randomized to consume a fixed content breakfast with low-fat milk (LFM), apple juice (AJ) or water (W) for two consecutive days. Subjective appetite, hunger, fullness, desire to eat and prospective food consumption were measured using a visual analogue scale every 1 h after breakfast followed by an ad libitum buffet lunch at 5 h.


All participants completed the study. Energy intake was significantly lower after intake of LFM compared with AJ and W (adjusted mean ± standard error of energy intake: LFM = 1010 ± 14 kcal, AJ = 1059 ± 16 kcal, W = 1236 ± 20 kcal; P < 0.001). The total appetite score and its components were significantly affected by time for all intervention beverages (P < 0.05). Obese children reported higher satiety score after drinking LFM with breakfast compared with W and AJ (P < 0.05).


Low-fat milk consumption might have favorable short-term effects on satiety and energy intake in obese boys. Future studies with more participants from both genders and longer follow-up periods are merited.

Clinical trial registration

The study protocol was registered with the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (Registration No: IRCT2013022312571N1).


Milk Appetite Energy intake Child Obesity 



Low-fat milk


Apple juice




Visual analogue scale


Cardiovascular diseases



The authors would like to thank all the children, their parents, the staff of Hassane Jafarian Elementary School and Isfahan Department of Education for their close cooperation and hospitality. All phases of this study were supported by a grant provided by the Food Security Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran, 392165.

Conflict of interest

All authors have no conflict of interest to disclose.

Supplementary material

394_2015_956_MOESM1_ESM.doc (71 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 71 kb)


  1. 1.
    Ebbeling CB, Pawlak DB, Ludwig DS (2002) Childhood obesity: public-health crisis, common sense cure. Lancet 360:473–482. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(02)09678-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    de Onis M, Blossner M, Borghi E (2010) Global prevalence and trends of overweight and obesity among preschool children. Am J Clin Nutr 92:1257–1264. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2010.29786 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Speiser PW, Rudolf MC, Anhalt H, Camacho-Hubner C, Chiarelli F, Eliakim A, Freemark M, Gruters A, Hershkovitz E, Iughetti L, Krude H, Latzer Y, Lustig RH, Pescovitz OH, Pinhas-Hamiel O, Rogol AD, Shalitin S, Sultan C, Stein D, Vardi P, Werther GA, Zadik Z, Zuckerman-Levin N, Hochberg Z, Obesity Consensus Working G (2005) Childhood obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:1871–1887. doi: 10.1210/jc.2004-1389 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bridger T (2009) Childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease. Paediatr Child Health 14:177–182Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Weigel C, Kokocinski K, Lederer P, Dotsch J, Rascher W, Knerr I (2008) Childhood obesity: concept, feasibility, and interim results of a local group-based, long-term treatment program. J Nutr Educ Behav 40:369–373. doi: 10.1016/j.jneb.2007.07.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gonzalez JT, Rumbold PL, Stevenson EJ (2012) Effect of calcium intake on fat oxidation in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Obes Rev 13:848–857. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2012.01013.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Soares MJ, Chan She Ping-Delfos W, Ghanbari MH (2011) Calcium and vitamin D for obesity: a review of randomized controlled trials. Eur J Clin Nutr. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2011.106 Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Abargouei AS, Janghorbani M, Salehi-Marzijarani M, Esmaillzadeh A (2012) Effect of dairy consumption on weight and body composition in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Int J Obes 36:1485–1493. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2011.269 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lapointe A, Weisnagel SJ, Provencher V, Begin C, Dufour-Bouchard AA, Trudeau C, Lemieux S (2010) Comparison of a dietary intervention promoting high intakes of fruits and vegetables with a low-fat approach: long-term effects on dietary intakes, eating behaviours and body weight in postmenopausal women. Br J Nutr 104:1080–1090. doi: 10.1017/S0007114510001716 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Whybrow S, Harrison CL, Mayer C, James Stubbs R (2006) Effects of added fruits and vegetables on dietary intakes and body weight in Scottish adults. Br J Nutr 95:496–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Spence LA, Cifelli CJ, Miller GD (2011) The role of dairy products in healthy weight and body composition in children and adolescents. Curr Nutr Food Sci 7:40–49. doi: 10.2174/157340111794941111 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Moore LL, Bradlee ML, Gao D, Singer MR (2006) Low dairy intake in early childhood predicts excess body fat gain. Obesity (Silver Spring) 14:1010–1018. doi: 10.1038/oby.2006.116 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dougkas A, Minihane AM, Givens DI, Reynolds CK, Yaqoob P (2012) Differential effects of dairy snacks on appetite, but not overall energy intake. Br J Nutr 108:2274–2285. doi: 10.1017/s0007114512000323 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dove ER, Hodgson JM, Puddey IB, Beilin LJ, Lee YP, Mori TA (2009) Skim milk compared with a fruit drink acutely reduces appetite and energy intake in overweight men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 90:70–75. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.27411 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chapelot D, Payen F (2010) Comparison of the effects of a liquid yogurt and chocolate bars on satiety: a multidimensional approach. Br J Nutr 103:760–767. doi: 10.1017/s000711450999225x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Harper A, James A, Flint A, Astrup A (2007) Increased satiety after intake of a chocolate milk drink compared with a carbonated beverage, but no difference in subsequent ad libitum lunch intake. Br J Nutr 97:579–583. doi: 10.1017/s0007114507339846 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dougkas A, Reynolds CK, Givens ID, Elwood PC, Minihane AM (2011) Associations between dairy consumption and body weight: a review of the evidence and underlying mechanisms. Nutr Res Rev 1–24. doi: 10.1017/S095442241000034X
  18. 18.
    Brindal E, Baird D, Danthiir V, Wilson C, Bowen J, Slater A, Noakes M (2012) Ingesting breakfast meals of different glycaemic load does not alter cognition and satiety in children. Eur J Clin Nutr 66:1166–1171. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2012.99 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Brindal E, Baird D, Slater A, Danthiir V, Wilson C, Bowen J, Noakes M (2013) The effect of beverages varying in glycaemic load on postprandial glucose responses, appetite and cognition in 10–12-year-old school children. Br J Nutr 110:529–537. doi: 10.1017/S0007114512005296 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    de Onis M, Onyango AW, Borghi E, Siyam A, Nishida C, Siekmann J (2007) Development of a WHO growth reference for school-aged children and adolescents. Bull World Health Organ 85:660–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hosseini M, Carpenter RG, Mohammad K, Jones ME (1999) Standardized percentile curves of body mass index of Iranian children compared to the US population reference. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord J Int Assoc Study Obes 23:783–786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Flint A, Raben A, Blundell JE, Astrup A (2000) Reproducibility, power and validity of visual analogue scales in assessment of appetite sensations in single test meal studies. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord J Int Assoc Study Obes 24:38–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Whitt MC, Irwin ML, Swartz AM, Strath SJ, O’Brien WL, Bassett DR Jr, Schmitz KH, Emplaincourt PO, Jacobs DR Jr, Leon AS (2000) Compendium of physical activities: an update of activity codes and MET intensities. Med Sci Sports Exerc 32:S498–S504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Soenen S, Westerterp-Plantenga MS (2007) No differences in satiety or energy intake after high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, or milk preloads. Am J Clin Nutr 86:1586–1594Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Almiron-Roig E, Drewnowski A (2003) Hunger, thirst, and energy intakes following consumption of caloric beverages. Physiol Behav 79:767–773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Maersk M, Belza A, Holst JJ, Fenger-Gron M, Pedersen SB, Astrup A, Richelsen B (2012) Satiety scores and satiety hormone response after sucrose-sweetened soft drink compared with isocaloric semi-skimmed milk and with non-caloric soft drink: a controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr 66:523–529. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2011.223 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    DellaValle DM, Roe LS, Rolls BJ (2005) Does the consumption of caloric and non-caloric beverages with a meal affect energy intake? Appetite 44:187–193. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2004.11.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fischer K, Colombani PC, Wenk C (2004) Metabolic and cognitive coefficients in the development of hunger sensations after pure macronutrient ingestion in the morning. Appetite 42:49–61. doi: 10.1016/s0195-6663(03)00116-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Han JC, Lawlor DA, Kimm SY (2010) Childhood obesity. Lancet 375:1737–1748. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60171-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bowen J, Noakes M, Clifton PM (2006) Appetite regulatory hormone responses to various dietary proteins differ by body mass index status despite similar reductions in ad libitum energy intake. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:2913–2919. doi: 10.1210/jc.2006-0609 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bowen J, Noakes M, Trenerry C, Clifton PM (2006) Energy intake, ghrelin, and cholecystokinin after different carbohydrate and protein preloads in overweight men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:1477–1483. doi: 10.1210/jc.2005-1856 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hall WL, Millward DJ, Long SJ, Morgan LM (2003) Casein and whey exert different effects on plasma amino acid profiles, gastrointestinal hormone secretion and appetite. Br J Nutr 89:239–248. doi: 10.1079/bjn2002760 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Diepvens K, Haberer D, Westerterp-Plantenga M (2008) Different proteins and biopeptides differently affect satiety and anorexigenic/orexigenic hormones in healthy humans. Int J Obes (Lond) 32:510–518. doi: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0803758 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Veldhorst MA, Nieuwenhuizen AG, Hochstenbach-Waelen A, van Vught AJ, Westerterp KR, Engelen MP, Brummer RJ, Deutz NE, Westerterp-Plantenga MS (2009) Dose-dependent satiating effect of whey relative to casein or soy. Physiol Behav 96:675–682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Layman DK, Walker DA (2006) Potential importance of leucine in treatment of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. J Nutr 136:319S–323SGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Warren JM, Henry CJ, Simonite V (2003) Low glycemic index breakfasts and reduced food intake in preadolescent children. Pediatrics 112:e414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Roberts SB (2000) High-glycemic index foods, hunger, and obesity: is there a connection? Nutr Rev 58:163–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    West DB, Delany JP, Camet PM, Blohm F, Truett AA, Scimeca J (1998) Effects of conjugated linoleic acid on body fat and energy metabolism in the mouse. Am J Physiol 275:R667–R672Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kamphuis MM, Lejeune MP, Saris WH, Westerterp-Plantenga MS (2003) Effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation after weight loss on appetite and food intake in overweight subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 57:1268–1274. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601684 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Van Wymelbeke V, Himaya A, Louis-Sylvestre J, Fantino M (1998) Influence of medium-chain and long-chain triacylglycerols on the control of food intake in men. Am J Clin Nutr 68:226–234Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sanaz Mehrabani
    • 1
    • 2
  • Seyyed Morteza Safavi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sepideh Mehrabani
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mehdi Asemi
    • 3
  • Awat Feizi
    • 4
  • Nick Bellissimo
    • 5
  • Amin Salehi-Abargouei
    • 6
    • 7
    Email author
  1. 1.Food Security Research CenterIsfahan University of Medical SciencesIsfahanIran
  2. 2.Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food ScienceIsfahan University of Medical SciencesIsfahanIran
  3. 3.Shahrekord BranchIslamic Azad UniversityShahrekordIran
  4. 4.Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of HealthIsfahan University of Medical SciencesIsfahanIran
  5. 5.Faculty of Community Services, School of NutritionRyerson UniversityTorontoCanada
  6. 6.Nutrition and Food Security Research CenterShahid Sadoughi University of Medical SciencesYazdIran
  7. 7.Department of Nutrition, Faculty of HealthShahid Sadoughi University of Medical SciencesYazdIran

Personalised recommendations