Effects of low-fat milk consumption at breakfast on satiety and short-term energy intake in 10- to 12-year-old obese boys
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Although controversy exists, some researchers have proposed that dairy products increase the sense of satiety and decrease energy intake; however, data about these effects are lacking in children. Our objective was to assess the effect of low-fat milk compared with iso-volumic and iso-volumic/iso-energetic controls on satiety and energy intake at lunch in obese boys using a randomized three-way crossover controlled clinical trial.
Thirty-four obese boys aged 10–12 years were randomized to consume a fixed content breakfast with low-fat milk (LFM), apple juice (AJ) or water (W) for two consecutive days. Subjective appetite, hunger, fullness, desire to eat and prospective food consumption were measured using a visual analogue scale every 1 h after breakfast followed by an ad libitum buffet lunch at 5 h.
All participants completed the study. Energy intake was significantly lower after intake of LFM compared with AJ and W (adjusted mean ± standard error of energy intake: LFM = 1010 ± 14 kcal, AJ = 1059 ± 16 kcal, W = 1236 ± 20 kcal; P < 0.001). The total appetite score and its components were significantly affected by time for all intervention beverages (P < 0.05). Obese children reported higher satiety score after drinking LFM with breakfast compared with W and AJ (P < 0.05).
Low-fat milk consumption might have favorable short-term effects on satiety and energy intake in obese boys. Future studies with more participants from both genders and longer follow-up periods are merited.
Clinical trial registration
The study protocol was registered with the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (Registration No: IRCT2013022312571N1).
KeywordsMilk Appetite Energy intake Child Obesity
Visual analogue scale
The authors would like to thank all the children, their parents, the staff of Hassane Jafarian Elementary School and Isfahan Department of Education for their close cooperation and hospitality. All phases of this study were supported by a grant provided by the Food Security Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran, 392165.
Conflict of interest
All authors have no conflict of interest to disclose.
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