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European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 55, Issue 4, pp 1359–1375 | Cite as

Dietary polyphenol intake in Europe: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study

  • Raul Zamora-Ros
  • Viktoria Knaze
  • Joseph A. Rothwell
  • Bertrand Hémon
  • Aurelie Moskal
  • Kim Overvad
  • Anne Tjønneland
  • Cecilie Kyrø
  • Guy Fagherazzi
  • Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault
  • Marina Touillaud
  • Verena Katzke
  • Tilman Kühn
  • Heiner Boeing
  • Jana Förster
  • Antonia Trichopoulou
  • Elissavet Valanou
  • Eleni Peppa
  • Domenico Palli
  • Claudia Agnoli
  • Fulvio Ricceri
  • Rosario Tumino
  • Maria Santucci de Magistris
  • Petra H. M. Peeters
  • H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita
  • Dagrun Engeset
  • Guri Skeie
  • Anette Hjartåker
  • Virginia Menéndez
  • Antonio Agudo
  • Esther Molina-Montes
  • José María Huerta
  • Aurelio Barricarte
  • Pilar Amiano
  • Emily Sonestedt
  • Lena Maria Nilsson
  • Rikard Landberg
  • Timothy J. Key
  • Kay-Thee Khaw
  • Nicholas J. Wareham
  • Yunxia Lu
  • Nadia Slimani
  • Isabelle Romieu
  • Elio Riboli
  • Augustin ScalbertEmail author
Original Contribution

Abstract

Background/Objectives

Polyphenols are plant secondary metabolites with a large variability in their chemical structure and dietary occurrence that have been associated with some protective effects against several chronic diseases. To date, limited data exist on intake of polyphenols in populations. The current cross-sectional analysis aimed at estimating dietary intakes of all currently known individual polyphenols and total intake per class and subclass, and to identify their main food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort.

Methods

Dietary data at baseline were collected using a standardized 24-h dietary recall software administered to 36,037 adult subjects. Dietary data were linked with Phenol-Explorer, a database with data on 502 individual polyphenols in 452 foods and data on polyphenol losses due to cooking and food processing.

Results

Mean total polyphenol intake was the highest in Aarhus—Denmark (1786 mg/day in men and 1626 mg/day in women) and the lowest in Greece (744 mg/day in men and 584 mg/day in women). When dividing the subjects into three regions, the highest intake of total polyphenols was observed in the UK health-conscious group, followed by non-Mediterranean (non-MED) and MED countries. The main polyphenol contributors were phenolic acids (52.5–56.9 %), except in men from MED countries and in the UK health-conscious group where they were flavonoids (49.1–61.7 %). Coffee, tea, and fruits were the most important food sources of total polyphenols. A total of 437 different individual polyphenols were consumed, including 94 consumed at a level >1 mg/day. The most abundant ones were the caffeoylquinic acids and the proanthocyanidin oligomers and polymers.

Conclusion

This study describes the large number of dietary individual polyphenols consumed and the high variability of their intakes between European populations, particularly between MED and non-MED countries.

Keywords

Polyphenols Dietary intake Food sources EPIC 

Abbreviations

24-HDR

24-h dietary recall

EPIC

European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

MED

Mediterranean

s.e.

Standard error

SU.VI.MAX

SUpplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants

USDA

US Department of Agriculture

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by the Institut National du Cancer, Paris (INCa Grants 2011-105), and the Wereld Kanker Onderzoek Fonds (WCRF NL 2012/604). The EPIC study was supported by the European Commission: Public Health and Consumer Protection Directorate 1993–2004, Research Directorate-General 2005; the French National Cancer Institute (L’Institut National du Cancer; INCA) (Grant Number 2009-139); Ligue contre le Cancer; the Institut Gustave Roussy; the Mutuelle Générale de l’Education Nationale; the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM); the German Cancer Aid; the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ); the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research; the Danish Cancer Society; The Danish Council for Strategic Research; Health Research Fund (FIS) of the Spanish Ministry of Health (RTICC (DR06/0020/0091); the participating regional governments from Asturias, Andalucía, Murcia, Navarra and Vasco Country and the Catalan Institute of Oncology of Spain; Cancer Research UK; Medical Research Council, UK; the Stroke Association, UK; British Heart Foundation; Department of Health, UK; Food Standards Agency, UK; the Wellcome Trust, UK; the Hellenic Health Foundation (Greece); Italian Association for Research on Cancer; Compagnia San Paolo, Italy; Dutch Ministry of Public Health, Welfare and Sports; Dutch Ministry of Health; Dutch Prevention Funds; LK Research Funds; Dutch ZON (Zorg Onderzoek Nederland); World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF); Statistics Netherlands (the Netherlands); Swedish Cancer Society; Swedish Scientific Council; Regional Government of Skane, The County Council of Västerbotten, Sweden; Nordforsk—Centre of Excellence programme; some authors are partners of ECNIS, a network of excellence of the 6th Framework Program of the European Commission.

Conflict of interest

Raul Zamora-Ros, Viktoria Knaze, Joseph A. Rothwell, Bertrand Hémon, Aurelie Moskal, Kim Overvad, Anne Tjønneland, Cecilie Kyrø, Guy Fagherazzi, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Marina Touillaud, Verena Katzke, Tilman Kühn, Heiner Boeing, Jana Förster, Antonia Trichopoulou, Elissavet Valanou, Eleni Peppa, Domenico Palli, Claudia Agnoli, Fulvio Ricceri, Rosario Tumino, Maria Santucci de Magistris, Petra H.M. Peeters, H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Dagrun Engeset, Guri Skeie, Anette Hjartåker, Virginia Menéndez, Antonio Agudo, Esther Molina-Montes, José María Huerta, Aurelio Barricarte, Pilar Amiano, Emily Sonestedt, Lena Maria Nilsson, Rikard Landberg, Timothy J. Key, Kay-Thee Khaw, Nicholas J. Wareham, Yunxia Lu, Nadia Slimani, Isabelle Romieu, Elio Riboli, Augustin Scalbert have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

394_2015_950_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (126 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLSX 126 kb)
394_2015_950_MOESM2_ESM.docx (18 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 18 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raul Zamora-Ros
    • 1
  • Viktoria Knaze
    • 1
  • Joseph A. Rothwell
    • 1
  • Bertrand Hémon
    • 1
  • Aurelie Moskal
    • 1
  • Kim Overvad
    • 2
  • Anne Tjønneland
    • 3
  • Cecilie Kyrø
    • 1
    • 3
  • Guy Fagherazzi
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  • Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  • Marina Touillaud
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  • Verena Katzke
    • 7
  • Tilman Kühn
    • 7
  • Heiner Boeing
    • 8
  • Jana Förster
    • 8
  • Antonia Trichopoulou
    • 9
    • 10
  • Elissavet Valanou
    • 9
  • Eleni Peppa
    • 9
  • Domenico Palli
    • 11
  • Claudia Agnoli
    • 12
  • Fulvio Ricceri
    • 13
  • Rosario Tumino
    • 14
  • Maria Santucci de Magistris
    • 15
  • Petra H. M. Peeters
    • 16
    • 17
  • H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita
    • 17
    • 18
    • 19
    • 20
  • Dagrun Engeset
    • 21
  • Guri Skeie
    • 21
  • Anette Hjartåker
    • 22
  • Virginia Menéndez
    • 23
  • Antonio Agudo
    • 24
  • Esther Molina-Montes
    • 25
    • 26
  • José María Huerta
    • 26
    • 27
  • Aurelio Barricarte
    • 26
    • 28
  • Pilar Amiano
    • 26
    • 29
  • Emily Sonestedt
    • 30
  • Lena Maria Nilsson
    • 31
    • 32
  • Rikard Landberg
    • 33
    • 34
  • Timothy J. Key
    • 35
  • Kay-Thee Khaw
    • 36
  • Nicholas J. Wareham
    • 37
  • Yunxia Lu
    • 17
  • Nadia Slimani
    • 1
  • Isabelle Romieu
    • 1
  • Elio Riboli
    • 17
  • Augustin Scalbert
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Biomarker Group, Nutrition and Metabolism SectionInternational Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Lyon Cedex 08France
  2. 2.Department of Public Health, Section for EpidemiologyAarhus UniversityAarhusDenmark
  3. 3.Danish Cancer Society Research CenterCopenhagenDenmark
  4. 4.U1018, Nutrition, Hormones and Women’s Health Team, InsermCentre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health (CESP)VillejuifFrance
  5. 5.UMRS 1018Paris South UniversityVillejuifFrance
  6. 6.Institut Gustave RoussyVillejuifFrance
  7. 7.Division of Cancer EpidemiologyGerman Cancer Research CenterHeidelbergGermany
  8. 8.Department of EpidemiologyGerman Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-RehbrückeNuthetalGermany
  9. 9.Hellenic Health FoundationAthensGreece
  10. 10.Bureau of Epidemiologic ResearchAcademy of AthensAthensGreece
  11. 11.Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology UnitCancer Research and Prevention Institute-ISPOFlorenceItaly
  12. 12.Nutritional Epidemiology UnitFondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei TumoriMilanItaly
  13. 13.Center for Cancer Prevention (CPO-Piemonte), and Human Genetic Foundation (HuGeF)TurinItaly
  14. 14.Cancer Registry and Histopathology Unit“Civic M.P. Arezzo” HospitalASP RagusaItaly
  15. 15.Department of Clinical and Experimental MedicineFederico II UniversityNaplesItaly
  16. 16.Department of Epidemiology, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary CareUniversity Medical Center UtrechtUtrechtThe Netherlands
  17. 17.School of Public HealthImperial College LondonLondonUK
  18. 18.Department for Determinants of Chronic Diseases (DCD)National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM)BilthovenThe Netherlands
  19. 19.Department of Gastroenterology and HepatologyUniversity Medical CentreUtrechtThe Netherlands
  20. 20.Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  21. 21.Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health SciencesUiT The Arctic University of NorwayTromsøNorway
  22. 22.Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical SciencesUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  23. 23.Public Health DirectorateAsturiasSpain
  24. 24.Unit of Nutrition, Environment and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research ProgramCatalan Institute of OncologyBarcelonaSpain
  25. 25.Escuela Andaluza de Salud Pública, Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs, GranadaHospitales Universitarios de Granada/Universidad de GranadaGranadaSpain
  26. 26.CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP)MadridSpain
  27. 27.Department of Epidemiology, Murcia Regional Health CouncilIMIB-ArrixacaMurciaSpain
  28. 28.Navarre Public Health InstitutePamplonaSpain
  29. 29.Public Health Department of Gipuzkoa, BioDonostia Research InstituteHealth Department of Basque RegionSan SebastiánSpain
  30. 30.Department of Clinical SciencesLund UniversityMalmöSweden
  31. 31.Department of Nutritional Research, Public Health and Clinical MedicineUmeå UniversityUmeåSweden
  32. 32.ArcumArctic Research Centre at Umeå UniversityUmeåSweden
  33. 33.Department of Food Science, Uppsala BioCentreSwedish University of Agricultural SciencesUppsalaSweden
  34. 34.Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Environmental MedicineKarolinska InstitutetStockholmSweden
  35. 35.Cancer Epidemiology UnitUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK
  36. 36.Department of Public Health and Primary CareUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK
  37. 37.MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic ScienceCambridge UniversityCambridgeUK

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