Vinegar decreases blood pressure by down-regulating AT1R expression via the AMPK/PGC-1α/PPARγ pathway in spontaneously hypertensive rats
Vinegar has been reported to lower blood pressure, but its mechanism is unclear. This study explored whether vinegar plays antihypertensive effect by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway.
Male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were assigned to vinegar, acetic acid, nifedipine, nifedipine + vinegar, or distilled water by oral gavage for 8 weeks. Blood and aortas were analyzed for biochemical indices and protein expression levels. Sv40-transformed aortic rat endothelia cell line (SVAREC) cells were treated with acetate at different doses for 24 h; protein expression levels were assessed.
Vinegar and acetic acid decreased blood pressure in SHRs on weeks 6 and 8, and nifedipine + vinegar had a better effect on blood pressure control than vinegar or nifedipine alone. Vinegar and acetic acid could decrease serum renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activities, angiotensin II and aldosterone concentrations in SHRs. Vinegar and acetic acid also increased AMP/ATP ratios and expression levels of pAMPK, PPARγ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), and PPARγ while inhibited angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) expression in SHRs. The changes in these protein expressions were also found in SVAREC cells treated with 200 or 400 μmol/L acetate. In the presence of AMPK inhibitor or PGC-1α small interfering RNA, the effects of acetate on their downstream protein expression in SVAREC cells were abolished, respectively.
Vinegar activates AMPK by increasing AMP/ATP ratios, thereby increases PGC-1α and PPARγ expressions, and inhibits AT1R expression in SHRs. Acetic acid is responsible for the antihypertensive effects of vinegar. There is a joint effect between vinegar and nifedipine in blood pressure control.
KeywordsAMPK Angiotensin II type 1 receptor Blood pressure Vinegar
This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81202188, 81202191), 12th China Five-Year Scientific and Technical Plan (No. 2012BAI02B00), Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2013T60393), Wu Liande foundation of Harbin Medical University (WLD-QN1406), and the Key Lab Found from the Department of Education of Heilongjiang Province (YYKFKT1210).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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