Effects of regular consumption of different forms of almonds and hazelnuts on acceptance and blood lipids
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Regular nut consumption is inversely associated with cardiovascular disease risk. No study has compared the effects of regular consumption of different types and forms of nuts on acceptance, which is a crucial determinant of long-term compliance to consume nuts regularly.
This study examined the effects of different types and forms of raw, unpeeled nuts on acceptance and the effects of nut consumption on blood lipids through a randomised crossover study with six dietary phases: 30 g/day of ground, sliced, or whole almonds or hazelnuts for 5 days each (n = 74). Acceptance (‘desire’ and ‘liking’) for nuts was measured daily using visual analogue scales. Blood lipids were measured at baseline and week 6.
Acceptance was stable over all conditions, but there were differences between nut forms (ground < sliced < whole, P < 0.001 for both ‘desire’ and ‘liking’) with some nut type–nut form interactions. Compared with baseline, week 6 HDL-C was higher (0.06 mmol/L, 95 % CI 0.02–0.10, P = 0.002) while LDL-C and total-C:HDL-C ratio were lower (0.15 mmol/L, 95 % CI 0.06–0.25, P = 0.002 and 0.25, 95 % CI 0.07–0.43, P = 0.006).
In conclusion, acceptance was stable for all combinations but was highest for whole nuts. Six weeks of nut consumption improved blood lipids.
KeywordsNut Almond Hazelnut Form Acceptance Cholesterol
This work was supported by the National Heart Foundation of New Zealand. The authors’ contributions were as follows—SLT, CMD, ARG, AWC, and RCB designed the research; SLT conducted the research and analysed the blood samples; SLT and ARG performed the statistical analyses; SLT and RCB wrote the manuscript; all authors reviewed and approved the final manuscript. The authors would like to thank Associate Professor Sheila Williams for providing expert statistical advice. In addition, we would like to thank the participants for their commitment and enthusiasm in participating in the present study.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
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