Comparison of two food record-based dietary assessment methods for a pan-European food consumption survey among infants, toddlers, and children using data quality indicators
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We aimed (1) to describe and evaluate the “EPIC-Soft DataEntry” application developed as a user-friendly data entry tool for pan-European and national food consumption surveys among infants and children, and (2) to compare two food record-based dietary assessment methods in terms of food description and quantification using data quality indicators. EPIC-Soft DataEntry was used for both methods.
Two pilot studies were performed in both Belgium and Czech Republic in a total of 376 children (3 months to 10 year olds): one using a consecutive 3-day food diary; and the second with two non-consecutive 1-day food diaries with data entry during a completion interview. The collected dietary data were compared between the two dietary assessment methods by country and by age groups: (i) <1 year; (ii) 1–3 years; (iii) >3–10 years.
Overall, 70 % of the interviewers evaluated the work with EPIC-Soft DataEntry as easy. With both dietary assessment methods, an equally high proportion of specific food names (e.g., “yoghurt, strawberry”) were reported, where only between 5 and 15 % of foods were non-specified (e.g., “yoghurt, n.s.”). The two 1-day food diaries yielded a higher proportion of foods with detailed description. For example, in the age category of 1–3 year olds in Belgium, for 7 out of 16 systematic questions on food description (e.g., “preservation method,”) specific answers were significantly higher (all P < 0.03). The proportion of missing quantities of consumed foods was comparable between the two methods.
The EPIC-Soft DataEntry application was positively evaluated by the majority of the interviewers. Two non-consecutive 1-day food diaries with data entry during a completion interview provide a more detailed description of consumed foods as compared with a 3-day food diary.
KeywordsDietary assessment EPIC-Soft (GloboDiet) Children Infants Data quality Europe Dietary surveys Standardization
The present study is a part of the PANCAKE project and has been funded in part by the European Food Safety Authority (CFP/EFSA/DATEX/2009/02). Sole responsibility lies with the authors. EFSA is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained therein, as stated by Article II.5—Publicity of the Amendment No. 1 to grant agreement CFP/EFSA/DATEX/2009/02. The PANCAKE project report is available at http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/supporting/pub/339e.htm. As compared with the project report, we focus on specific aspects of the project in more detail including formal hypothesis testing. We thank all participants, interviewers, and other personnel for their important contributions to this study. The authors have no conflict of interest.
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