Advertisement

European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 54, Issue 1, pp 149–156 | Cite as

Consumption of a dark roast coffee decreases the level of spontaneous DNA strand breaks: a randomized controlled trial

  • T. Bakuradze
  • R. Lang
  • T. Hofmann
  • G. Eisenbrand
  • D. Schipp
  • J. Galan
  • E. Richling
Original Contribution

Abstract

Purpose

Coffee consumption has been reported to decrease oxidative damage in peripheral white blood cells (WBC). However, effects on the level of spontaneous DNA strand breaks, a well established marker of health risk, have not been specifically reported yet. We analyzed the impact of consuming a dark roast coffee blend on the level of spontaneous DNA strand breaks.

Methods

Healthy men (n = 84) were randomized to consume daily for 4 weeks either 750 ml of fresh coffee brew or 750 ml of water, subsequent to a run in washout phase of 4 weeks. The study coffee was a blend providing high amounts of both caffeoylquinic acids (10.18 ± 0.33 mg/g) and the roast product N-methylpyridinium (1.10 ± 0.05 mg/g). Before and after the coffee/water consumption phase, spontaneous strand breaks were determined by comet assay.

Results

At baseline, both groups exhibited a similar level of spontaneous DNA strand breaks. In the intervention phase, spontaneous DNA strand breaks slightly increased in the control (water only) group whereas they significantly decreased in the coffee group, leading to a 27 % difference within both arms (p = 0.0002). Food frequency questionnaires indicated no differences in the overall diet between groups, and mean body weight during the intervention phases remained stable. The consumption of the study coffee substantially lowered the level of spontaneous DNA strand breaks in WBC.

Conclusion

We conclude that regular coffee consumption contributes to DNA integrity.

Keywords

Antioxidants Coffee Comet assay Intervention study DNA strand breaks 

Abbreviations

BMI

Body mass index

TI

Tail intensity

BS

Blood sampling

NMP

N-Methylpyridinium

NQO1

NAD(P)H:quinine oxidoreductase 1

γ-GCL

γ-Glutamylcysteine ligase

Nrf2

NF-E2 p45 subunit-related factor 2

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful for the contribution of the participants in the study. We thank Dirk Galan and Axel Stachon for their support during the study. The authors thank Sylvia Schmidt for performing the comet measurements and Anja Beusch for technical assistance.

Conflict of interest

This study has been supported by Tchibo GmbH, Hamburg. G. Eisenbrand is scientific advisor within the BMBF cluster projects, grants no 0313843 and 0315692, with Tchibo GmbH and with the Institute for Scientific Information on Coffee, La Tour de Peilz, Switzerland (ISIC).

References

  1. 1.
    Natella F, Scaccini C (2012) Role of coffee in modulation of diabetes risk. Nutr Rev 70(4):207–217. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2012.00470.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC (1999) Free radicals in biology and medicine. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bakuradze T, Lang R, Hofmann T, Stiebitz H, Bytof G, Lantz I, Baum M, Eisenbrand G, Janzowski C (2010) Antioxidant effectiveness of coffee extracts and selected constituents in cell-free systems and human colon cell lines. Mol Nutr Food Res 54(12):1734–1743. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201000147 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Boettler U, Sommerfeld K, Volz N, Pahlke G, Teller N, Somoza V, Lang R, Hofmann T, Marko D (2011) Coffee constituents as modulators of Nrf2 nuclear translocation and ARE (EpRE)-dependent gene expression. J Nutr Biochem 22(5):426–440. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2010.03.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bakuradze T, Boehm N, Janzowski C, Lang R, Hofmann T, Stockis JP, Albert FW, Stiebitz H, Bytof G, Lantz I, Baum M, Eisenbrand G (2011) Antioxidant-rich coffee reduces DNA damage, elevates glutathione status and contributes to weight control: results from an intervention study. Mol Nutr Food Res 55(5):793–797. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201100093 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hoelzl C, Knasmuller S, Wagner KH, Elbling L, Huber W, Kager N, Ferk F, Ehrlich V, Nersesyan A, Neubauer O, Desmarchelier A, Marin-Kuan M, Delatour T, Verguet C, Bezencon C, Besson A, Grathwohl D, Simic T, Kundi M, Schilter B, Cavin C (2010) Instant coffee with high chlorogenic acid levels protects humans against oxidative damage of macromolecules. Mol Nutr Food Res 54(12):1722–1733. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201000048 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Steinkellner H, Hoelzl C, Uhl M, Cavin C, Haidinger G, Gsur A, Schmid R, Kundi M, Bichler J, Knasmuller S (2005) Coffee consumption induces GSTP in plasma and protects lymphocytes against (±)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide induced DNA-damage: results of controlled human intervention trials. Mutat Res 591(1–2):264–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bichler J, Cavin C, Simic T, Chakraborty A, Ferk F, Hoelzl C, Schulte-Hermann R, Kundi M, Haidinger G, Angelis K, Knasmuller S (2007) Coffee consumption protects human lymphocytes against oxidative and 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole acetate (Trp-P-2) induced DNA-damage: results of an experimental study with human volunteers. Food Chem Toxicol 45(8):1428–1436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Misik M, Hoelzl C, Wagner KH, Cavin C, Moser B, Kundi M, Simic T, Elbling L, Kager N, Ferk F, Ehrlich V, Nersesyan A, Dusinska M, Schilter B, Knasmuller S (2010) Impact of paper filtered coffee on oxidative DNA-damage: results of a clinical trial. Mutat Res 692(1–2):42–48. doi: 10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2010.08.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Weiss C, Rubach M, Lang R, Seebach E, Blumberg S, Frank O, Hofmann T, Somoza V (2010) Measurement of the intracellular pH in human stomach cells: a novel approach to evaluate the gastric acid secretory potential of coffee beverages. J Agric Food Chem 58(3):1976–1985. doi: 10.1021/jf903614d CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lang R, Wahl A, Stark T, Hofmann T (2012) Identification of urinary and salivary biomarkers for coffee consumption. In: Recent advances in the analysis of foods and flavors. ACS symposium series edited by Toth S et alGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Collins AR, Dusinska M, Gedik CM, Stetina R (1996) Oxidative damage to DNA: do we have a reliable biomarker? Environ Health Perspect 104(Suppl 3):465–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Collins AR (2013) Measuring oxidative damage to DNA and its repair with the comet assay. Biochim Biophys Acta. doi: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2013.04.022 Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Azqueta A, Gutzkow KB, Priestley CC, Meier S, Walker JS, Brunborg G, Collins AR (2013) A comparative performance test of standard, medium- and high-throughput comet assays. Toxicol In Vitro 27(2):768–773. doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2012.12.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Azqueta A, Collins AR (2013) The essential comet assay: a comprehensive guide to measuring DNA damage and repair. Arch Toxicol 87(6):949–968. doi: 10.1007/s00204-013-1070-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lang R, Wahl A, Stark T, Hofmann T (2011) Urinary N-methylpyridinium and trigonelline as candidate dietary biomarkers of coffee consumption. Mol Nutr Food Res 55(11):1613–1623. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201000656 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fujioka K, Shibamoto T (2008) Chlorogenic acid and caffeine contents in various commercial brewed coffees. Food Chem 106(1):217–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Stadler RH, Varga N, Milo C, Schilter B, Vera FA, Welti DH (2002) Alkylpyridiniums. 2. Isolation and quantification in roasted and ground coffees. J Agric Food Chem 50(5):1200–1206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lang R, Yagar EF, Wahl A, Beusch A, Dunkel A, Dieminger N, Eggers R, Bytof G, Stiebitz H, Lantz I, Hofmann T (2013) Quantitative studies on roast kinetics for bioactives in coffee. J Agric Food Chem 61(49):12123–12128. doi: 10.1021/jf403846g CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kotyczka C, Boettler U, Lang R, Stiebitz H, Bytof G, Lantz I, Hofmann T, Marko D, Somoza V (2011) Dark roast coffee is more effective than light roast coffee in reducing body weight, and in restoring red blood cell vitamin E and glutathione concentrations in healthy volunteers. Mol Nutr Food Res 55(10):1582–1586. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201100248 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bakuradze T, Baum M, Richling E (2011) Sample preparation modulating the results of the comet assay; abstracts of UKEMS/Dutch EMS-sponsored workshop on biomarkers of exposure and oxidative DNA damage and 7th GUM 32P-Postlabelling workshop. Münster, Germany. March 28–29, 2011. Mutagenesis 26(5):718. doi: 10.1093/mutage/ger026 Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hoelzl C, Knasmuller S, Misik M, Collins A, Dusinska M, Nersesyan A (2009) Use of single cell gel electrophoresis assays for the detection of DNA-protective effects of dietary factors in humans: recent results and trends. Mutat Res 681(1):68–79. doi: 10.1016/j.mrrev.2008.07.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Moller P, Loft S (2006) Dietary antioxidants and beneficial effect on oxidatively damaged DNA. Free Radic Biol Med 41(3):388–415. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2006.04.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Volz N, Boettler U, Winkler S, Teller N, Schwarz C, Bakuradze T, Eisenbrand G, Haupt L, Griffiths LR, Stiebitz H, Bytof G, Lantz I, Lang R, Hofmann T, Somoza V, Marko D (2012) Effect of coffee combining green coffee bean constituents with typical roasting products on the Nrf2/ARE pathway in vitro and in vivo. J Agric Food Chem 60(38):9631–9641. doi: 10.1021/jf302258u CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Bakuradze
    • 1
  • R. Lang
    • 2
  • T. Hofmann
    • 2
  • G. Eisenbrand
    • 1
  • D. Schipp
    • 3
  • J. Galan
    • 4
  • E. Richling
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Food Chemistry, Toxicology, and Molecular Nutrition, Department of ChemistryUniversity of KaiserslauternKaiserslauternGermany
  2. 2.Technische Universität MünchenFreisingGermany
  3. 3.Rosenthal-BielatalGermany
  4. 4.GruenstadtGermany

Personalised recommendations