European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 54, Issue 1, pp 51–58 | Cite as

Can soy intake affect serum uric acid level? Pooled analysis from two 6-month randomized controlled trials among Chinese postmenopausal women with prediabetes or prehypertension

  • Z. M. Liu
  • C. S. Ho
  • Y. M. Chen
  • J. Woo
Original Contribution



Hyperuricemia is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Soy foods contain a moderate amount of purine and may predispose to raised serum uric acid (UA). However, no study has examined the long-term effect of soy intake on UA levels. We examined whether consumption of soy foods and isoflavone extracts for 6 months altered serum UA.


The analysis included two randomized controlled trials (soy protein trial and whole soy trial) among total 450 postmenopausal women with either prehypertension or prediabetes. We conducted a pooled analysis by combining participants from both the soy flour and soy protein groups (combined soy foods group), participants from both the isoflavone and daidzein groups (combined isoflavone group) and participants from both milk placebo groups. Fasting venous samples were obtained at baseline and the end of the trial for serum UA analysis.


In the pooled data, 417 subjects completed the study according to protocol. The baseline serum UA levels were comparable among the three combined groups. There was a lower decrease in UA levels among women in the combined soy foods group compared with women in the other two groups (p = 0.028 and 0.026). The net decrease and % decrease in UA were 14.5 μmol/L (95 % CI 1.93–25.6, p = 0.023) or 4.9 % (95 % CI 1.3–8.5 %, p = 0.023) between the combined soy foods group and placebo group.


Among Chinese postmenopausal women with either prehypertension or prediabetes, soy intake did not increase urate levels.


Soy foods Isoflavones Uric acid 



Prof. Suzanne C Ho, Prof. Yu-ming Chen, Dr. Zhao-min Liu and Prof. Jean Woo conceptualized and designed the trial and obtained the grant. Dr. Zhao-min Liu conducted data collection, analyzed the data and drafted the manuscript. Prof. Yu-ming Chen helped in urine analysis of isoflavones, dietary assessment and biochemical testing. Prof. Kenneth to conducted the randomization and labels preparation. We are indebted to our study participants and the research assistants. Without their effort, this investigation would not have been possible. The study was funded by Hong Kong Research Grant Committee-General Research Fund (RGC-GRF465810 and CUHK4450/06M) and registered in with identifier of NCT01270737 and NCT00856882.

Conflict of interest

All the authors declare no conflict of interests. Neither the RGC-GRF nor soy and dairy companies had any role in the design and conduct of the study; the collection, analysis and interpretation of the data; or the preparation, review or approval of the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Geriatrics, Department of Medicine and TherapeuticsThe Chinese University of Hong KongHong Kong SARPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Division of Epidemiology, The Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary CareThe Chinese University of Hong KongHong Kong SARPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Public HealthSun Yat-sen UniversityGuangzhouPeople’s Republic of China

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