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European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 53, Issue 7, pp 1511–1521 | Cite as

Intake of vegetables and fruit and risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma: a meta-analysis of observational studies

  • Bailing Li
  • Gengxi Jiang
  • Guanxin Zhang
  • Qing Xue
  • Hao Zhang
  • Chong Wang
  • Tiejun ZhaoEmail author
Original Contribution

Abstract

Objectives

To study the association between the intake of fruit and vegetables and risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), we summarized the evidence from observational studies in categorical and linear dose–response meta-analyses.

Methods

Eligible studies published up to June 2013 were retrieved via computerized searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE. Random-effects models were used to calculate summary relative risks (SRRs) and the corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Between-study heterogeneity was assessed using the Cochran’s Q and I 2 statistics.

Results

A total of 12 studies involving 1,572 cases of EAC were included in this meta-analysis. Based on the highest versus lowest analysis, inverse associations were observed between intakes of vegetable (SRRs = 0.76, 95 % CIs 0.59–0.96; P heterogeneity = 0.098, I 2 40.4 %; n = 9 studies), intakes of fruit (SRRs = 0.73, 95 % CIs, 0.55–0.98; P heterogeneity = 0.03, I 2 = 52.9 %; n = 9 studies), and intakes of total vegetables and fruit combined (SRRs = 0.68, 95 % CI 0.49–0.93; P heterogeneity = 0.162, I 2 = 38.9 %; n = 5 studies). Similar results were also observed in a linear dose–response analysis.

Conclusion

These data support the hypothesis that intakes of vegetables and fruit may significantly reduce the risk of EAC. Further investigation with prospective designs, validated questionnaires, and good control of important confounders is warranted.

Keywords

Esophageal adenocarcinoma Meta-analysis Fruit Vegetable 

Abbreviations

EC

Esophageal cancer

ESCC

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

EAC

Esophageal adenocarcinoma

BMI

Body mass index

FFQ

Food frequency questionnaire

SRR

Summary relative risk

CI

Confidence interval

GERD

Gastroesophageal reflux disease

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Natural Scientific Foundation of China (No. 81201780)and Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality medical guide foundation Research Grant (No. 114119a9300).

Conflict of interest

The authors disclose no conflicts of interests.

Supplementary material

394_2014_656_MOESM1_ESM.doc (32 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 31 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bailing Li
    • 1
  • Gengxi Jiang
    • 1
  • Guanxin Zhang
    • 1
  • Qing Xue
    • 1
  • Hao Zhang
    • 1
  • Chong Wang
    • 1
  • Tiejun Zhao
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Cardiothoracic SurgeryChanghai Hospital of Second Military Medical UniversityShanghaiChina

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