European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 53, Issue 1, pp 159–166 | Cite as

Absorption and isomerization of caffeoylquinic acids from different foods using ileostomist volunteers

  • T. Erk
  • M. Renouf
  • G. Williamson
  • R. Melcher
  • H. Steiling
  • E. Richling
Original Contribution



Polyphenols are thought to play important roles in human nutrition and health but these health effects are dependent on their bioavailability. This study is one of a series with the aim of determining possible effects of food matrices on caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) bioavailability using ileostomy volunteers.


After a CQA-free diet, ileostomists consumed coffee (746 μmol total CQA), and CQAs in excreted ileal fluid were subsequently identified and quantified with HPLC–diode array detection and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. In our previous studies, other food sources such as cloudy apple juice (CAJ) (358 μmol CQA) and apple smoothie (AS) (335 μmol CQA) were investigated with the same model.


Interesterification of CQA from both apple matrices was observed during gastrointestinal passage, whereas CQA consumed in coffee was not influenced by interesterification reactions. In total, 74.3, 22.4, and 23.8 % of the CQA from CAJ, AS, and coffee, respectively, were absorbed or degraded.


Our results show that variations in food matrices and variations in phenolic composition have a major influence on intestinal bioavailability and interesterification of the investigated subclass of polyphenols, the CQAs.


Caffeoylquinic acid Apple juice Apple smoothie Coffee Bioavailability Ileostomy 


pKa (37 °C)

Ionization constant in water

diff(log PN−I)

Difference between log P N and log P I

log PI

Logarithm of the partition coefficient of a given compound in its fully ionized form

log PN

Logarithm of the partition coefficient of a given compound in its neutral form

log D6.8

Logarithm of the distribution coefficient at pH 6.8


Multidrug resistance protein 2


Cloudy apple juice


Apple smoothie


Caffeoylquinic acid


Dicaffeoylquinic acid


Quinic acid


Caffeic acid


Chlorogenic acids


Gastrointestinal tract



The authors thank all volunteers in the study for their participation; Lionel Philippe (NRC) for supervising the study as clinical project manager and Ines Holub for her widespread help in performing the intervention studies in Wuerzburg. The study was funded by the Nestlé Research Centre, NRC (Lausanne, Switzerland).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no commercial or financial conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Erk
    • 1
  • M. Renouf
    • 2
  • G. Williamson
    • 3
  • R. Melcher
    • 4
  • H. Steiling
    • 2
  • E. Richling
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Division of Food Chemistry and ToxicologyUniversity of KaiserslauternKaiserslauternGermany
  2. 2.Nestlé Research CenterVers-Chez-les-Blanc, LausanneSwitzerland
  3. 3.School of Food Science and NutritionUniversity of LeedsLeedsUK
  4. 4.Department of Medicine II, Division of GastroenterologyUniversity of WuerzburgWuerzburgGermany

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