Dietary cocoa ameliorates obesity-related inflammation in high fat-fed mice
- 1.3k Downloads
To investigate the effect of cocoa powder supplementation on obesity-related inflammation in high fat (HF)-fed obese mice.
Male C57BL/6J (n = 126) were fed with either low-fat (LF, 10 % kcal from fat) or HF (60 % kcal from fat) diet for 18 weeks. After 8 weeks, mice from HF group were randomized to HF diet or HF diet supplemented with 8 % cocoa powder (HF–HFC group) for 10 weeks. Blood and tissue samples were collected for biochemical analyses.
Cocoa powder supplementation significantly reduced the rate of body weight gain (15.8 %) and increased fecal lipid content (55.2 %) compared to HF-fed control mice. Further, cocoa supplementation attenuated insulin resistance, as indicated by improved HOMA-IR, and reduced the severity of obesity-related fatty liver disease (decreased plasma alanine aminotransferase and liver triglyceride) compared to HF group. Cocoa supplementation also significantly decreased plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory mediators interleukin-6 (IL-6, 30.4 %), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, 25.2 %), and increased adiponectin (33.7 %) compared to HF-fed mice. Expression of pro-inflammatory genes (Il6, Il12b, Nos2, and Emr1) in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of the epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) was significantly reduced (37–56 %) in the cocoa-supplemented mice.
Dietary supplementation with cocoa ameliorates obesity-related inflammation, insulin resistance, and fatty liver disease in HF-fed obese mice, principally through the down-regulation of pro-inflammatory gene expression in WAT. These effects appear to be mediated in part by a modulation of dietary fat absorption and inhibition of macrophage infiltration in WAT.
KeywordsTheobroma cacao Cocoa Polyphenols Inflammation Obesity
Adipose tissue-associated macrophage
Degree of polymerization
High-fat diet supplemented with 8 % cocoa powder
Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance
Inducible nitric oxide synthase
Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1
Obesity-related fatty liver disease
Stromal vascular fraction
Tumor necrosis factor-α
White adipose tissue
The authors would like to acknowledge Dr. Sarah Forester, Ms. Sudathip Sae-tan, Ms. Tongtong Xu, Ms. Ling Tao, Mr. Zachary Bitzer, and Ms. Amy Brownschidle for technical assistance.
Conflict of interest
- 5.Wellen KE, Hotamisligil GS (2003) Obesity-induced inflammatory changes in adipose tissue. J Clin Invest 112:1785–1788Google Scholar
- 7.Kanamoto Y, Yamashita Y, Nanba F, Yoshida T, Tsuda T, Fukuda I, Nakamura-Tsuruta S, Ashida H (2011) A black soybean seed coat extract prevents obesity and glucose intolerance by up-regulating uncoupling proteins and down-regulating inflammatory cytokines in high-fat diet-fed mice. J Agric Food Chem 59:8985–8993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 8.Weisberg SP, Mccann D, Desai M, Rosenbaum M, Leibel RL, Ferrante AW (2003) Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue. J Clin Invest 112:1796–1808Google Scholar
- 13.Selmi C, Mao TK, Keen CL, Schmitz HH, Gershwin ME (2006) The anti-inflammatory properties of cocoa flavanols. Inflammation 47:163–171Google Scholar
- 20.Yamashita Y, Okabe M, Natsume M, Ashida H (2012) Prevention mechanisms of glucose intolerance and obesity by cacao liquor procyanidin extract in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice. Arch Biochem Biophys 2012:1–10Google Scholar
- 21.Mao T, Water JVD, Keen CL, Schmitz HH, Gershwin ME (2000) Cocoa Procyanidins and Human Cytokine Transcription and Secretion. J Nutr 130:2093–2099Google Scholar
- 25.Kenny TP, Keen CL, Schmitz HH, Gershwin ME, Enny THPK, Een CARLLK, Chmitz HAHS (2007) Immune effects of procyanidin oligomers on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Exp Biol Med 232:293–300Google Scholar
- 29.Xu H, Barnes GT, Yang Q, Tan G, Yang D, Chou CJ, Sole J, Nichols A, Ross JS, Tartaglia LA, Chen H (2003) Chronic inflammation in fat plays a crucial role in the development of obesity-related insulin resistance. J Clin Invest 112:1821–1830Google Scholar
- 32.Grassi D, Lippi C, Necozione S, Desideri G, Ferri C (2005) Short-term administration of dark chocolate is followed by a significant increase in insulin sensitivity and a decrease in blood pressure in healthy persons. Am J Clin Nutr 81:611–614Google Scholar
- 38.Buechler C, Wanninger J, Neumeier M (2011) Adiponectin, a key adipokine in obesity related liver diseases. World J Gastroenterol 17:2801–28011Google Scholar