Effects of improved fat content of frankfurters and pâtés on lipid and lipoprotein profile of volunteers at increased cardiovascular risk: a placebo-controlled study
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- Delgado-Pando, G., Celada, P., Sánchez-Muniz, F.J. et al. Eur J Nutr (2014) 53: 83. doi:10.1007/s00394-013-0502-1
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To study the effect of modified frankfurters and pâtés: (a) reduced-fat products (RF) (15.3 and 15.2 % fat, respectively); (b) n-3-enriched reduced-fat products (n-3 RF) (15.1 and 15.5 % fat, respectively); and (c) normal-fat products (NF) (18 and 30.8 % fat, respectively) on lipids, lipoproteins, atherogenic ratios, oxidized LDL, and blood pressure of volunteers at high CVD risk.
Twenty-two volunteers were enrolled in a sequential study of 3 consecutive 4-week periods separated by 4-week washout periods.
LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.01), oxidized LDL, LDL-cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol (both p < 0.05) were significantly affected by the overall intervention. Compared to baseline, LDL-cholesterol decreased significantly (p = 0.012) during the RF period; the LDL-cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio (p = 0.08) and the diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.06) also decreased, although non-significantly, after RF consumption. LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.040) and oxidized LDL (p = 0.016) increased significantly after NF product consumption; systolic blood pressure did not show significant variations after this period. No significant differences, in absolute or relative changes, were observed between RF and n-3 RF consumption for any parameter tested. However, LDL-cholesterol, oxidized LDL, and the LDL-cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio were lower (12, 15 and 10 %, respectively) after n-3 RF versus NF product consumption. Oxidized LDL was approximately 15 % lower after RF versus NF product consumption.
The regular consumption of RF meat products, enriched in n-3 fatty acids or not, positively affects the lipoprotein profile of volunteers, decreasing LDL-cholesterol and oxidized LDL levels and, thus, future risk of cardiovascular accident. On comparison with the effects of NF product intake, the responses to n-3 RF and RF products differ, and while n-3 RF intake induces a reduction in LDL-cholesterol, oxidized LDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio, the intake of RF products modifies only the oxidized LDL level.
KeywordsReduced-fat Omega-3-enriched meat Cholesterol Lipids Lipoprotein Atherogenic ratio Blood pressure Frankfurters Pâtés
- n-3 RF
Reduced-fat meat enriched in n-3 fatty acids
Coronary heart disease
Polyunsaturated fatty acids
Monounsaturated fatty acids
Saturated fatty acids
European food safety authority