Advertisement

European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 52, Issue 4, pp 1289–1302 | Cite as

Trans-fatty acids, dangerous bonds for health? A background review paper of their use, consumption, health implications and regulation in France

  • Farid MenaaEmail author
  • Abder MenaaEmail author
  • Bouzid Menaa
  • Jacques Tréton
Review

Abstract

Introduction

Trans-fatty acids (TFAs) can be produced either from bio-hydrogenation in the rumen of ruminants or by industrial hydrogenation. While most of TFAs’ effects from ruminants are poorly established, there is increasing evidence that high content of industrial TFAs may cause deleterious effects on human health and life span.

Material and methods

Indeed, several epidemiological and experimental studies strongly suggest that high content of most TFA isomers could represent a higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases by a mechanism that lowers the “good HDL cholesterol” and raises the “bad LDL cholesterol.”

Results

With respect to the general precautionary principle and considering the existence of an international policy consensus regarding the need for public health action, some industrialized countries, such as France, are still not sufficiently involved in preventive strategies that aim to efficiently reduce TFAs content and TFAs consumption and produce alternative healthier fat sources.

Conclusion

In this manuscript, we provide an overview about TFAs origins, their use and consumption among French population. We also discuss their potential human health implications as well as the preventive and regulatory measures undertaken in France.

Keywords

Trans-fatty acids Health complications Preventive medicine Nutrition Regulatory affairs French populations 

Abbreviations

AFSSA

Agence Française Sanitaire et Sociale des Aliments

Ag-TLC

Silver nitrate thin-layer chromatography

CLA

Conjugated linoleic acid

DHA

Docosahexaenoic acid

EPA

Eicosapentaenoic acid

FA

Fatty acid

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

FTIR–ATR

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy–attenuated total reflection

GC

Gas chromatography

g/d

Gram per day

LDL

Low-density lipoprotein

HDL

High-density lipoprotein

HPLC

High-pressure liquid chromatography

MUFA

Mono-unsaturated fatty acid

PHVO

Partially hydrogenated vegetable oils

PUFA

Poly-unsaturated fatty acid

SFA

Saturated fatty acid

TFA

Trans-fatty acid

Notes

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Brouwer IA, Wanders AJ, Katan MB (2010) Effect of animal and industrial trans fatty acids on HDL and LDL cholesterol levels in humans—a quantitative review. PLoS ONE 5:e9434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sommerfeld M (1983) Trans unsaturated fatty acids in natural products and processed foods. Prog Lipid Res 22:221–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ledoux M, Rouzeau A, Sauvant D, Bas P (2002) Occurrence of trans-C18:1 fatty acid isomers in goat milk: effect of two dietary regimens. J Dairy Sci 85:190–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aro A, Antoine JM, Pizzoferrato L, Reykdal O, Van Poppel G (1998) Trans fatty acids in dairy and meat products from 14 European countries: the TRANSFAIR Study. J Food Compos Anal 11:150–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Turpeinen AM, Mutanen M, Aro A, Salminen I, Basu S, Palmquist DL, Griinari JM (2002) Bioconversion of vaccenic acid to conjugated linoleic acid in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 76:504–510Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wolff RL, Combe NA, Destaillats F, Boué C, Precht D, Molkentin J, Entressangles B (2000) Follow-up of the D4 to D16 trans-18:1 isomer profile and content in French Processed foods containing partially hydrogenated vegetable oils during the period 1995–1999. Analytical and nutritional implications. Lipids 35:815–825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ratnayake WM, Galli C (2009) Fat and fatty acid terminology, methods of analysis and fat digestion and metabolism: a background review paper. Ann Nutr Metab 55:8–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Saguy IS, Dana D (2003) Integrated approach to deep fat frying: engineering, nutrition, health and consumer aspects I. J Food Eng 56:3143–3152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hulshof KF, van Erp-Baart MA, Anttolainen M, Becker W, Church SM, Couet C, Hermann-Kunz E, Kesteloot H, Leth T, Martins I, Moreiras O, Moschandreas J, Pizzoferrato L, Rimestad AH, Thorgeirsdottir H, van Amelsvoort JM, Aro A, Kafatos AG, Lanzmann-Petithory D, van Poppel G (1999) Intake of fatty acids in western Europe with emphasis on trans fatty acids: the TRANSFAIR Study. Eur J Clin Nutr 53:143–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    American Heart Association Nutrition Committee, Lichtenstein AH, Appel LJ, Brands M, Carnethon M, Daniels S, Franch HA, Franklin B, Kris-Etherton P, Harris WS, Howard B, Karanja N, Lefevre M, Rudel L, Sacks F, Van Horn L, Winston M, Wylie-Rosett J (2006) Diet and lifestyle recommendations revision 2006: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Nutrition Committee. Circulation 114:82–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ascherio A, Hennekens CH, Buring JE, Master C, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC (1994) Trans-fatty acids intake and risk of myocardial infarction. Circulation 89:94–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pietinen P, Ascherio A, Korhonen P, Hartman AM, Willett WC, Albanes D, Virtamo J (1997) Intake of fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease in a cohort of Finnish men. The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Am J Epidemiol 145:876–887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jakobsen MU, Overvad K, Dyerberg J, Heitmann BL (2008) Intake of ruminant trans fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease. Int J Epidemiol 37:173–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Colditz GA, Speizer FE, Rosner BA, Sampson LA, Hennekens CH (1993) Intake of trans fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease among women. Lancet 341:581–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Oomen CM, Ocké MC, Feskens EJ, van Erp-Baart MA, Kok FJ, Kromhout D (2001) Association between trans fatty acid intake and 10-year risk of coronary heart disease in the Zutphen Elderly Study: a prospective population-based study. Lancet 357:746–751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Thompson AK, Minihane AM, Williams CM (2011) Trans fatty acids and weight gain. Int J Obes (Lond) 35:315–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Smith BK, Robinson LE, Nam R, Ma DW (2009) Trans-fatty acids and cancer: a mini-review. Br J Nutr 102:1254–1266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mozaffarian D, Katan MB, Ascherio A, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC (2006) Trans fatty acids and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med 354:1601–1613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Almendingen K, Jordal O, Kierulf P, Sandstad B, Pedersen JI (1995) Effects of partially hydrogenated fish oil, partially hydrogenated soybean oil, and butter on serum lipoproteins and Lp[a] in men. J Lipid Res 36:1370–1384Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Müller H, Jordal O, Seljeflot I, Kierulf P, Kirkhus B, Ledsaak O, Pedersen JI (1998) Effect on plasma lipids and lipoproteins of replacing partially hydrogenated fish oil with vegetable fat in margarine. Br J Nutr 80:243–251Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Vermunt SH, Beaufrère B, Riemersma RA, Sébédio JL, Chardigny JM, Mensink RP, TransLinE Study (2001) Dietary trans alpha-linolenic acid from deodorised rapeseed oil and plasma lipids and lipoproteins in healthy men: the TransLinE Study. Br J Nutr 85:387–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bhattacharya A, Banu J, Rahman M, Causey J, Fernandes G (2006) Biological effects of conjugated linoleic acids in health and disease. J Nutr Biochem 17:789–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Whigham LD, Watras AC, Schoeller DA (2007) Efficacy of conjugated linoleic acid for reducing fat mass: a meta-analysis in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 85:1203–1211Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    World Health Organization (2004) Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nishida C, Uauy R, Kumanyika S, Shetty P (2004) The Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation on diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases: process, product and policy implications. Public Health Nutr 7:245–250Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    PAHO/WHO Task Force (2007) Trans fats free Americas. Conclusions and Recommendations. Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    [No authors listed] (1978) The nomenclature of lipids (Recommendations 1976) IUPAC-IUB Commission on Biochemical nomenclature. Biochem J 171(1):21–35Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fahy E, Subramaniam S, Murphy RC, Nishijima M, Raetz CR, Shimizu T, Spener F, van Meer G, Wakelam MJ, Dennis EA (2009) Update of the LIPID MAPS comprehensive classification system for lipids. J Lipid Res 50:S9–S14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Graber R, Sumida C, Nunez EA (1994) Fatty acids and cell signal transduction. J Lipid Mediat Cell Signal 9:91–116Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Woollett LA, Spady DK, Dietschy JM (1992) Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids independently regulate low density lipoprotein receptor activity and production rate. J Lipid Res 33:77–88Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yaqoob P (2003) Fatty acids as gatekeepers of immune cell regulation. Trends Immunol 24:639–645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Neitzel JJ (2010) Fatty acid molecules: fundamentals and role in signaling. Nat Educ 3:57Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Davidson BC, Cantrill RC (1985) Fatty acid nomenclature. A short review. S Afr Med J 67:633–634Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lobb K, Chow CK (2007) Fatty acid classification and nomenclature. In: Chow CK (ed) Fatty acids in foods and their health implications, 3rd edn. CRC Press, New York, pp 1–15Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Holman RT (1998) The slow discovery of the importance of omega 3 essential fatty acids in human health. J Nutr 128:427S–433SGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Holman RT (1964) Nutritional and metabolic interrelationships between fatty acids. Fed Proc 23:1062–1067Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sébédio JL (2007) Acides gras trans: nature, origine et impact sur la santé. Cah Nutr Diet 42:239–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dobson G (2002) Analysis of fatty acids in functional foods with emphasis on ω3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid. In: Hurst WJ (ed) Methods of analysis for functional foods and nutraceuticals. CRC Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (2007) Section 7: Biochemistry. In: Taylor and Francis Group, LLC, 88th ednGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Mosley EE, Wright AL, McGuire MK, McGuire MA (2005) Trans fatty acids in milk produced by women in the United States. Am J Clin Nutr 82:1292–1297Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kraft J, Hanske L, Möckel P, Zimmermann S, Härtl A, Kramer JK, Jahreis G (2006) The conversion efficiency of trans-11 and trans-12 18:1 by Delta9-desaturation differs in rats. J Nutr 136:1209–1214Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Griinari JM, Corl BA, Lacy SH, Chouinard PY, Nurmela KVV, Bauman DE (2000) Conjugated linoleic acid is synthesized endogenously in lactating dairy cows by D9-desaturase. J Nutr 130:2285–2291Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Chilliard Y, Ferlay A, Doreau M (2001) Contrôle de la qualité nutritionnelle des matières grasses du lait par l’alimentation des vaches laitières: acides gras trans polyinsaturés, acide linoléique conjugué. INRA Prod Anim 14:323–335Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Griinari JM, Bauman DE (1999) Biosynthesis of conjugated linoleic acid and its incorporation into meat and milk in ruminants. In: Yurawecz MP, Mossoba MM, Kramer JKG, Pariza MW, Nelson GJ (eds) Advances in conjugated linoleic acid research. AOCS Press, Champaign, pp 180–200Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Precht D (1995) Variation of trans fatty acids in milk fats. Z Ernährungswiss 34:27–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ledoux M, Laloux L, Sauvant D (2000) Les isomères trans des acides gras: origine et présence dans l’alimentation. Sci Alim 20:393–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Chilliard Y, Ferlay A, Rouel J, Lamberet G (2003) A review of nutritional and physiological factors affecting goat milk lipid synthesis and lipolysis. J Dairy Sci 86:1751–1770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Lucas A, Agabriel C, Martin B, Ferlay A, Verdier-Metz I, Coulon JB, Rock E (2006) Relationships between the conditions of cow’s milk production and the contents of components of nutritional interest in raw milk farmhouse cheese. Lait 86:177–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    de Heredia FP, Larque E, Del Puy Portillo M, Canteras M, Zamora S, Garaulet M (2008) Age-related changes in fatty acids from different adipose depots in rat and their association with adiposity and insulin. Nutrition 24:1013–1022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sabatier P (1966) The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1912. Nobel Lectures, Chemistry, 1901–1921. Elsevier. Nobel Foundation http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1912/
  51. 51.
    Normann W (1903) Process for converting unsaturated fatty acids or their glycerides into saturated compounds. DE patent 141029 and GB patent 190301515Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Perkins AG, Smick C (1987) Octadecatrienoic fatty acid isomers of partially hydrogenated soybean oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 64:1150–1155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Brühl L (1995) Determination of trans fatty acids in cold pressed oils. Eur J Med Res 1:89–93Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    San Juan PMF (1996) Study of isomeric trans fatty acids content in the commercial Spanish food. Int J Food Sci Nutr 47:399–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Precht D, Molkentin J (2000) Recent trends in the fatty acid composition of German sunflower margarines, shortenings and cooking fats with emphasis on individual C16:1, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3 and C20:1 trans isomers. Nahrung 44:222–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Henninger M, Ulberth F (1996) Trans fatty acids in margarines and shortenings marketed in Austria. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 203:210–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ackman RG, Mag TK (1998) Trans fatty acids and the potential for less in technical products. In: Sebedio JL, Christie WW (eds) Trans fatty acids in human nutrition. The Oily Press, Dundee, pp 35–58Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ratnayake WMN, Pelletier G, Hollywood R, Bacler S, Leyle D (1998) Trans fatty acids in Canadian margarines: recent trends. J Am Oil Chem Soc 75:1587–1594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Ackman RG, Hooper SN, Hooper DL (1974) Linolenic acid artefacts from the deodorization of oils. J Am Oil Chem Soc 51:42–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Sébédio JL, Grandgirard A, Prevost J (1988) Linoleic acid isomers in heat treated sunflower oils. J Am Oil Chem Soc 65:362–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Devinat G, Scamaroni L, Naudet M (1980) Isomerisation de l’acide linolenique durant la desodorisaton des huiles de colza et de soja. Rev Franç Corps Gras 27:283–287Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Shantha NC, Ram LN, O’Leary J, Hicks CL, Decker EA (1995) Conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in dairy products as affected by processing and storage. J Food Sci 60:695–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Rodríguez-Alcalá LM, García-Martínez MC, Cachón F, Marmesat S, Alonso L, Márquez-Ruiz G, Fontecha J (2007) Changes in the lipid composition of powdered infant formulas during long-term storage. J Agric Food Chem 55:6533–6538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ratnayake WMN (2004) Overview of methods for the determination of trans fatty acids by gas chromatography, silver-ion thin-layer chromatography, silver-ion liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. J AOAC Int 87:523–529Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ackman RG (2008) Application of gas-liquid chromatography to lipid separation and analysis: Qualitative and quantitative analysis. In: Chow CK (ed) Fatty acids in foods and their health implications. CRC Press, London, pp 47–65Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Mossoba MM, Yurawecz MP, Delmonte P, Kramer KG (2004) Overview of infrared methodologies for trans fat determination. J AOAC Int 87:540–544Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ratnayake WMN, Hansen SL, Kennedy MP (2006) Evaluation of the CP-Sil 88 and SP-2560 GC columns used in the recently approved AOCS Official Method Ce 1 h–05: determination of cis-, trans-, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in vegetable or non-ruminant animal oils and fats by capillary GLC method. J Am Oil Chem Soc 83:475–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    AOCS official method Ce 1 h-05 (2005) Determination of cis-, trans-, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in vegetable or non-ruminant animal oils and fats by capillary GLC method. In: Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the AOCS, 5th edn. Urbana, American Oil Chemists’ SocietyGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    AOAC Official Method 996.06 (2001). Fat (total, saturated, and unsaturated) in foods, hydrolytic extraction gas chromatographic method. In: Horwitz W (ed) Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International, 18th edn. Gaithersburg, AOACGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Volatier JL, Verger P (1999) Recent national French food and nutrient intake data. Br J Nutr 81:S57–S59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Bertail P, Boizot C, Combris P (1993) La consommation alimentaire en 1991, distribution des quantités consommées à domicile, INRA ESR IvryGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Favier JC, Ireland-Ripert J, Toque C, Feinberg M (1996) Répertoire général des aliments, table de composition, CNEVA. CIQUAL. Tec & Doc Lavoisier, ParisGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Thiebaut AC, Clavel-Chapelon F (2001) Fat consumption and breast cancer: preliminary results from the E3NEpic cohort. Bull Cancer 88:954–958Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Combe N, Boue C, Entressangles B (2000) Consumption of trans fatty acids and cardiovascular risks: aquitaine survey (France). Oléagineux Corps gras Lipides 7:30–34Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    AFSSA (Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Aliments) (2005) Risques et bénéfices pour la santé des acides gras trans apportés par les aliments. Recommandations (Rapport), p 217Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    AFSSA (Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Aliments). http://www.anses.fr/
  77. 77.
    AFSSA (Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Aliments) (2009) Avis de l’Agence française de sécurité sanitaire des aliments sur l′estimation des apports em acides grãs trans de la population française. Saisine n° 2007-SA-0220Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Rigaud D, Giachetti I, Deheeger M, Borys JM, Volatier JL, Lemoine A, Cassuto DA (1997) Enquête française de consommation alimentaire I. Energie Macro-nutr Cah Nutr Diét 32:379–389Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Boué C, Combe N, Billeaud C, Mignerot C, Entressangles B, Thery G, Geoffrion H, Brun JL, Dallay D, Leng JJ (2000) Trans fatty acids in adipose tissue of French women in relation to their dietary sources. Lipids 35:561–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Lopez AD, Mathers CD, Ezzati M, Jamison DT, Murray CJL (2006) Global burden of disease and risk factors. The World Bank and Oxford University Press, Oxford, p 469Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Steinberg D, Gotto AM Jr (1999) Preventing coronary artery disease by lowering cholesterol levels: fifty years from bench to bedside. JAMA 282:2043–2050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Genest J Jr, Cohn JS (1999) Epidemiological evidence linking plasma lipoprotein disorders to atherosclerosis and other diseases. In: Barter PJ, Rye KA (eds) Plasma Lipids and their role in disease. Taylor and Francis, London, pp 46–48Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Hodis NN, Mack WJ (1998) Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and progression of atherosclerosis. Eur Heart J 19:40–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Chapman MJ (1999) Atherogenicity of low density lipoprotein: mechanisms. In: Barter PJ, Rye KA (eds) Plasma lipids and their role in disease. Taylor and Francis, LondonGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    de Lorgeril M (2008) Cholestérol, mensonges et propagande. Thierry Souccar Editions, p 317Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Ravnskov U (2000) The cholesterol myths. New Trends Publishing, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Bassett CM, McCullough RS, Edel AL, Maddaford TG, Dibrov E, Blackwood DP, Austria JA, Pierce GN (2009) Trans-fatty acids in the diet stimulate atherosclerosis. Metabolism 58:1802–1808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    McColl MD, Sattar N, Ellison J, Tait RC, Walker ID, Packard CJ, Greer IA (2000) Lipoprotein (a), cholesterol and triglycerides in women with venous thromboembolism. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 11:225–229Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Hankey GJ, Eikelboom JW (1999) Homocysteine and vascular disease. Lancet 354:407–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Loscalzo J (1990) Lipoprotein(a). A unique risk factor for atherothrombotic disease. Arteriosclerosis 10:672–679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Kohler HP, Grant PJ (2000) Plasminogen-activator inhibitor type 1 and coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med 342:1792–1801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Junker R, Heinrich J, Schulte H, van de Loo J, Assmann G (1997) Coagulation factor VII and the risk of coronary heart disease in healthy men. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 17:1539–1544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Mozaffarian D, Aro A, Willett WC (2009) Health effects of trans-fatty acids: experimental and observational evidence. Eur J Clin Nutr 63:S5–S21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Ascherio P, Rimm EB, Giovannucci EL, Spiegleman D, Stampfer M, Willett WC (1996) Dietery fat and risk of coronary heart disease in men: cohort follow up study in the United States. BMJ 313:84–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Manson JAE, Rimm E, Colditz GA, Rosner BA, Hennekens CH, Willett WC (1997) Dietary Fat Intake and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Women. N Engl J Med 337:1491–1499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Aro A, Kardinaal AF, Salminen I, Kark JD, Riemersma RA, Delgado-Rodriguez M, Gomez-Aracena J, Huttunen JK, Kohlmeier L, Martin BC et al (1995) Adipose tissue isomeric trans fatty acids and risk of myocardial infarction in nine countries: the EURAMIC study. Lancet 345:273–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Kromhout D, Menotti A, Bloemberg B, Aravanis C, Blackburn H, Buzina R, Dontas AS, Fidanza F, Giampaoli S, Jansen A et al (1995) Dietary saturated and trans fatty acids and cholesterol and 25-year mortality from coronary heart disease: the Seven Countries Study. Prev Med 24:308–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Chardigny JM, Chardigny JM, Destaillats F, Malpuech-Brugère C, Moulin J, Bauman DE, Lock AL, Barbano DM, Mensink RP, Bezelgues JB, Chaumont P, Combe N, Cristiani I, Joffre F, German JB, Dionisi F, Boirie Y, Sébédio JL (2008) Do trans fatty acids from industrially produced sources and from natural sources have the same effect on cardiovascular disease risk factors in healthy subjects? Results of the trans Fatty Acids Collaboration (TRANSFACT) study. Am J Clin Nutr 87:558–566Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Motard-Bélanger A, Charest A, Grenier G, Paquin P, Chouinard Y, Lemieux S, Couture P, Lamarche B (2008) Study of the effect of trans fatty acids from ruminants on blood lipids and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr 87:593–599Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Roberts TL, Wood DA, Riemersma RA, Gallagher PJ, Lampe FC (1995) Trans isomers of oleic and linoleic acids in adipose tissue and sudden cardiac death. Lancet 345:278–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Van de Vijver LP, van Poppel G, van Houwelingen A, Kruyssen DA, Hornstra G (1996) Trans unsaturated fatty acids in plasma phospholipids and coronary heart disease: a case–control study. Atherosclerosis 126:155–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Fritsche J, Steinhart H, Kardalinos V, Klose G (1998) Contents of trans-fatty acids in human substernal adipose tissue and plasma lipids: relation to angiographically documented coronary heart disease. Eur J Med Res 3:401–416Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Van de Vijver LP, Kardinaal AF, Couet C, Aro A, Kafatos A, Steingrimsdottir L, Amorim Cruz JA, Moreiras O, Becker W, van Amelsvoort JM, Vidal-Jessel S, Salminen I, Moschandreas J, Sigfússon N, Martins I, Carbajal A, Ytterfors A, Poppel G (2000) Association between trans fatty acid intake and cardiovascular risk factors in Europe: the TRANSFAIR study. Eur J Clin Nutr 54:126–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Abbey M, Nestel PJ (1994) Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer activity is increased when trans-elaidic acid is substituted for cis-oleic acid in diet. Atherosclerosis 106:99–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Van Tol A, Zock PL, Van Gent T, Scheek LM, Katan MB (1995) Dietary trans fatty acids increase serum cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity in man. Atherosclerosis 115:129–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Mensink R, Katan MB (1990) Effect of dietary trans fatty acids on high density and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in healthy subjects. N Engl J Med 323:439–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Zock PL, Katan MB (1992) Hydrogenation alternatives: effects of trans fatty acids and stearic acid versus linoleic acid on serum lipids and lipoproteins in human. J Lipid Res 33:399–410Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Judd JT, Clevidence BA, Muesing RA, Wittes J, Sunkin ME, Podczasy JJ (1994) Dietary trans fatty acids: effects on plasma and lipoproteins of healthy men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 59:861–868Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Katan MB, Zock PL, Mensink RP (1995) Trans fatty acids and their effects on lipoproteins in humans. Annu Rev Nutr 15:473–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Harvey KA, Arnold T, Rasool T, Antalis C, Miller SJ, Siddiqui RA (2008) Trans-fatty acids induce pro-inflammatory responses and endothelial cell dysfunction. Br J Nutr 99:723–731Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Mozaffarian D (2006) Trans fatty acids—effects on systemic inflammation and endothelial function. Atheroscler Suppl 7:29–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Risérus U (2006) Trans fatty acids, insulin sensitivity and type 2 diabetes. Scand J Food Nutr 50:161–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Micha R, Mozaffarian D (2009) Trans fatty acids: effects on metabolic syndrome, heart disease and diabetes. Nat Rev Endocrinol 5:335–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Dorfman SE, Laurent D, Gounarides JS, Li X, Mullarkey TL, Rocheford EC, Sari-Sarraf F, Hirsch EA, Hughes TE, Commerford SR (2009) Metabolic implications of dietary trans-fatty acids. Obesity (Silver Spring) 17:1200–1207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Riserus U, Arner P, Brismar K, Vessby B (2002) Treatment with dietary trans 10 cis 12 conjugated linoleic acid causes isomer-specific insulin resistance in obese men with the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care 25:1516–1522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Saravanan N, Haseeb A, Ehtesham NZ, Ghafoorunissa AS (2005) Differential effects of dietary saturated and trans fatty acids on expression of genes associated with insulin sensitivity in rat adipose tissue. Eur J Endocrinol 153:159–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Taylor CG, Zahradka P (2004) Dietary conjugated linoleic acid and insulin sensitivity and resistance in rodent models. Am J Clin Nutr 79:1164S–1168SGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Gaullier JM, Halse J, Hoye K, Kristiansen K, Fagerteun H, Vik H, Gudmundsen O (2004) Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for 1 y reduces body fat mass in healthy overweight humans. Am J Clin Nutr 79:1118–1125Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Malpuech-Brugère C, Verboeket-van de Venne WP, Mensink RP, Arnal MA, Morio B, Brandolini M, Saebo A, Lassel TS, Chardigny JM, Sébédio JL, Beaufrère B (2004) Effects of two conjugated linoleic acid isomers on body fat mass in overweight humans. Obes Res 12:591–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Bakker N, Van’t Veer P, Zock PL, The EURAMIC Study Group (1997) Adipose fatty acids and cancers of the breast, prostate and colon: an ecological study. Int J Cancer 72:587–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Chajès V, Thiébaut AC, Rotival M, Gauthier E, Maillard V, Boutron-Ruault MC, Joulin V, Lenoir GM, Clavel-Chapelon F (2008) Association between serum trans-monounsaturated fatty acids and breast cancer risk in the E3N-EPIC Study. Am J Epidemiol 167:1312–1320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Slattery ML, Benson J, Ma KN, Potter JD (2001) Trans-fatty acids and colon cancer. Nutr Cancer 39:170–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Limburg PJ, Liu-Mares W, Vierkant RA, Wang AH, Harnack L, Flood AP, Sellers TA, Cerhan JR (2008) Prospective evaluation of trans-fatty acid intake and colorectal cancer risk in the Iowa Women’s Health Study. Int J Cancer 123:2717–2719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Byrne C, Rockett H, Holmes MD (2002) Dietary fat, fat subtypes, and breast cancer risk: lack of an association among postmenopausal women with no history of benign breast disease. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11:261–265Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Tanmahasamut P, Liu J, Hendry LB, Sidell N (2004) Conjugated linoleic acid block estrogen signalling in human breast cancer cells. J Nutr 134:674–680Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Corl BA, Barbano DM, Bauman DE, Ip C (2003) cis-9, trans-11 CLA derived endogenously from trans-11 18:1 reduces cancer risk in rats. J Nutr 33:2893–2900Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Degen C, Ecker J, Piegholdt S, Liebisch G, Schmitz G, Jahreis G (2011) Metabolic and growth inhibitory effects of conjugated fatty acids in the cell line HT-29 with special regard to the conversion of t11, t13-CLA. Biochim Biophys Acta 1811(12):1070–1080CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Koletzko B, Thiel I, Springer S (1992) Lipids in human milk: a model for infant formulae? Eur J Clin Nutr 46:S45–S55Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Carlson SE, Clandinin MT, Cook HW, Emken EA, Filer LJ Jr (1997) Trans fatty acids: infant and fetal development. Am J Clin Nutr 66:715S–736SGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Combe N, Judde A, Billeaud C, Boue C, Turon F, Entressangles B, Dallay D, Lengh JJ (1998) Distribution of dietary trans isomers of essential fatty acids in blood lipid classes. In: Riemersma RA, Armstrong RA, Kelly RW, Wilson R (eds) Proceedings of the fourth international congress on essential fatty acids and eicosanoids. Champaign, AOCS Press, pp 239–242Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Boué C, Combe N, Billeaud C, Entressangles B (2001) Nutritional implications of trans fatty acids during perinatal period, in French pregnant women. Lipids, fats and oils: opportunities and responsibilities in the New Century. OCL 8:68–72Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Bouwstra H, Dijck-Brouwer J, Decsi T, Boehm G, Boersma ER, Muskiet FA, Hadders-Algra M (2006) Neurologic condition of healthy term infants at 18 months: positive association with venous umbilical DHA status and negative association with umbilical trans-fatty acids. Pediatr Res 60:334–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Innis SM (2007) Fatty acids and early human development. Early Hum Dev 83:761–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Innis SM (2006) Trans fatty intakes during pregnancy, infancy and early childhood. Atheroscler Suppl 7:17–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Pérez-Ferrer C, Lock K, Riviera JÁ (2010) Learning from international policies on trans fatty acids to reduce cardiovascular disease in low- and middle-income countries, using Mexico as a case study. Health Policy Plan 25:39–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Stender S, Dyerberg J (2004) Influence of trans fatty acids on health. Ann Nutr Metab 48:61–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Stender S, Dyerberg J, Hølmer G, Ovesen L, Sandström B (1995) The influence of trans fatty acids on health: a report from the Danish Nutrition Council. Clin Sci (Lond) 88:375–392Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Leth T, Jensen HG, Mikkelsen AA, Bysted A (2006) The effect of the regulation on trans-fatty acid content in Danish food. Atherosclerosis S7:53–56Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    L’Abbé MR, Stender S, Skeaff CM, Ghafoorunissa, Tavella M (2009) Approaches to removing trans fats from the food supply in industrialized and developing countries. Eur J Clin Nutr 63:S50–S67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Okie S (2007) New York to trans fats: you’re out! N Engl J Med 356:2017–2021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Leake LL (2007) Trans fat to go. Food Technol 61:66–68Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    California State Assembly (2008) Assembly Bill No. 97. Sacramento, CAGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Trans Fat Task Force (2006) Ottawa: Health Canada and Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada; TRANSforming the Food Supply, Report of the Trans Fat Task Force submitted to the Minister of Health of CanadaGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    CSPINET (Center for Science in the Public Interest). http://www.cspinet.org/
  145. 145.
    Moss J (2006) Labeling of trans fatty acid content in food, regulations and limits-the FDA view. Atheroscler Suppl 7:57–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Tarrago-Trani MT, Phillips KM, Lemar LE, Holden JM (2006) New and existing oils and fats used in products with reduced trans-fatty acid content. J Am Diet Assoc 106:867–880CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Coutinho JG, Recine E (2007) International experiences with health claims in food labeling. Rev Panam Salud Publica 22:432–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Valenzuela A, Nieto S, Peterson G, Tavella M (2004) Comparative study in fried food about the stability of different vegetable oils. Fat Oils Mag 2:22–28Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Korver O, Katan MB (2006) The elimination of trans fats from spreads: how science helped to turn an industry around. Nutr Rev 64:275–279Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Willett WC, Ascherio A (1994) Trans fatty acids: are the effects only marginal? Am J Public Health 84:722–724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Katan MB (2006) Regulation of trans fats: the gap, the Polder, and McDonald’s French fries. Atheroscler Suppl 7:63–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Food Standards Agency (2007) FSA Board to advise the Department of Heath to maintain successful voluntary approach for trans fats in food. Press release, LondonGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Willett WC (2006) The scientific basis for TFA regulations-is it sufficient? Comments from the USA. Atheroscler Suppl 7:69–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Colo’n Ramos U, Baylin A, Campos H (2006) The relation between trans fatty acid levels and increased risk of myocardial infarction does not hold at lower levels of trans fatty acids in Costa Rican food supply. J Nutr 136:2887–2892Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Baylin A, Kabagambe EK, Ascherio A, Spiegelman D, Campos H (2003) High 18:2 trans-fatty acids in adipose tissue are associated with increased risk of nonfatal acute myocardial infarction in Costa Rican adults. J Nutr 133:1186–1191Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    The LIPID MAPS–Nature Lipidomics Gateway, http://www.lipidmaps.org/
  157. 157.
    Fahy E, Sud M, Cotter D, Subramaniam S (2007) LIPID MAPS online tools for lipid research. Nucleic Acids Res 35:W606–W612CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food Sciences and TechnologyFluorotronics, Inc.San DiegoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Nutrition, Aesthetic and Anti-Aging MedicineCentre Médical Des GuittièresSaint-Philbert de Grand lieuFrance
  3. 3.Centre de Recherches des CordeliersUniversité Paris V-René Descartes, UMRS INSERM U872ParisFrance

Personalised recommendations