European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 52, Issue 5, pp 1547–1551

Effects of flaxseed supplementation on erythrocyte fatty acids and multiple cardiometabolic biomarkers among Chinese with risk factors of metabolic syndrome

  • Geng Zong
  • Wendy Demark-Wahnefried
  • Hongyu Wu
  • Xu Lin
Short Communication

Abstract

Purpose

We investigated effects of ground whole flaxseed supplementation on erythrocyte polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and serum biomarkers of inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and thrombosis in Chinese with risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS).

Methods

This study was a secondary analysis of a 12-week, randomized, parallel-group trial in participants screened for MetS. The analysis included only those with 2 or more components of MetS before receiving either lifestyle counseling (LC, n = 90) or LC + 30 g/day flaxseed supplementation (LCF, n = 83).

Results

Compared to the LC group, those in the LCF group experienced significant increases in total erythrocyte n-3 PUFAs, α-linolenic acid, eicosapentenoic acid, and docosapentenoic acid (all P < 0.001), while total n-6 PUFAs (P < 0.05) and n-6/n-3 ratio decreased (P < 0.001). Arachidonic acid increased significantly in the LC group (P < 0.001), and serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-18, soluble intracellular adhesion molecular-1, E-selectin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 declined significantly in both groups (all P < 0.05), but no between-group differences were observed. There was no significant change in serum interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, soluble vascular adhesion molecular-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein in either group.

Conclusions

These data suggest that flaxseed supplementation increases erythrocyte n-3 PUFAs, decreases n-6 PUFAs and n-6/n-3 ratio in participants with risk factors of MetS, but has no additional benefits beyond the lifestyle consulting for the multiple biomarkers tested in the current study.

Keywords

Flaxseed PUFA Cytokines Metabolic syndrome 

Abbreviations

ALA

α-Linolenic acid

PUFA

Polyunsaturated fatty acid

MetS

Metabolic syndrome

LC

Lifestyle counseling

LCF

LC + 30 g/day flaxseed

FAME

Fatty acid methyl ester

hsCRP

High-sensitivity C-reactive protein

IL-6

Interluekin-6

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor-α

MCP-1

Monocyte chemotactic protein-1

sICAM-1

Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1

sVCAM-1

Soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1

PAI-1

Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1

ox-LDL

Oxidized low-density lipoprotein

IL-18

Interleukin-18

EPA

Eicosapentenoic acid

DHA

Docosahexenoic acid

DPA

Docosapentenoic acid

LA

Linoleic acid

AA

Arachidonic acid

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Geng Zong
    • 1
  • Wendy Demark-Wahnefried
    • 2
  • Hongyu Wu
    • 3
  • Xu Lin
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological SciencesChinese Academy of Sciences and Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of SciencesShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Department of Nutrition SciencesUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA
  3. 3.Department of NutritionHarvard School of Public HealthBostonUSA

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