Adaptive metabolic response to 4 weeks of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in healthy, lightly active individuals and chronic high glucose availability in primary human myotubes
- 564 Downloads
Chronic sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Hyperglycaemia contributes to metabolic alterations observed in T2DM, such as reduced oxidative capacity and elevated glycolytic and lipogenic enzyme expressions in skeletal muscle tissue. We aimed to investigate the metabolic alterations induced by SSB supplementation in healthy individuals and to compare these with the effects of chronic hyperglycaemia on primary muscle cell cultures.
Lightly active, healthy, lean subjects (n = 11) with sporadic soft drink consumption underwent a 4-week SSB supplementation (140 ± 15 g/day, ~2 g glucose/kg body weight/day, glucose syrup). Before and after the intervention, body composition, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), insulin sensitivity, muscle metabolic gene and protein expression were assessed. Adaptive responses to hyperglycaemia (7 days, 15 mM) were tested in primary human myotubes.
SSB supplementation increased fat mass (+1.0 kg, P < 0.05), fasting RER (+0.12, P < 0.05), fasting glucose (+0.3 mmol/L, P < 0.05) and muscle GAPDH mRNA expressions (+0.94 AU, P < 0.05). PGC1α mRNA was reduced (−0.20 AU, P < 0.05). Trends were found for insulin resistance (+0.16 mU/L, P = 0.09), and MondoA protein levels (+1.58 AU, P = 0.08). Primary myotubes showed elevations in GAPDH, ACC, MondoA and TXNIP protein expressions (P < 0.05).
Four weeks of SSB supplementation in healthy individuals shifted substrate metabolism towards carbohydrates, increasing glycolytic and lipogenic gene expression and reducing mitochondrial markers. Glucose-sensing protein MondoA might contribute to this shift, although further in vivo evidence is needed to corroborate this.
KeywordsSoft drinks Insulin resistance PGC1α MondoA TXNIP
We would like to thank Dr Matschke for her help with the data collection and Dr Caspari for letting us use part of the NWCRF Institute facilities. We are also grateful to Dr de Morree for proofreading the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
- 1.Chopra M, Galbraith S, Darnton-Hill I (2002) A global response to a global problem: the epidemic of overnutrition. Bull World Health Organ 80:952–958Google Scholar
- 6.Simoneau JA, Kelley DE (1997) Altered glycolytic and oxidative capacities of skeletal muscle contribute to insulin resistance in NIDDM. J Appl Physiol 83:166–171Google Scholar
- 9.Tanner CJ, Barakat HA, Dohm GL, Pories WJ, MacDonald KG, Cunningham PR, Swanson MS, Houmard JA (2002) Muscle fiber type is associated with obesity and weight loss. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 282:E1191–E1196Google Scholar
- 10.Ellis BA, Poynten A, Lowy AJ, Furler SM, Chisholm DJ, Kraegen EW, Cooney GJ (2000) Long-chain acyl-CoA esters as indicators of lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in rat and human muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 279:E554–E560Google Scholar
- 11.Parikh H, Carlsson E, Chutkow WA, Johansson LE, Storgaard H, Poulsen P, Saxena R, Ladd C, Schulze PC, Mazzini MJ, Jensen CB, Krook A, Bjornholm M, Tornqvist H, Zierath JR, Ridderstrale M, Altshuler D, Lee RT, Vaag A, Groop LC, Mootha VK (2007) TXNIP regulates peripheral glucose metabolism in humans. PLoS Med 4:e158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 20.Gibson R (1993) Nutritional assessment. A laboratory manual. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 23.WHO (1999) Definition, diagnostic and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. In: Report of a WHO Consultation. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- 25.Frayn KN (1983) Calculation of substrate oxidation rates in vivo from gaseous exchange. J Appl Physiol 55:628–634Google Scholar
- 26.Reiser S, Bohn E, Hallfrisch J, Michaelis OEt, Keeney M, Prather ES (1981) Serum insulin and glucose in hyperinsulinemic subjects fed three different levels of sucrose. Am J Clin Nutr 34:2348–2358Google Scholar
- 27.Reiser S, Handler HB, Gardner LB, Hallfrisch JG, Michaelis OEt, Prather ES (1979) Isocaloric exchange of dietary starch and sucrose in humans. II. Effect on fasting blood insulin, glucose, and glucagon and on insulin and glucose response to a sucrose load. Am J Clin Nutr 32:2206–2216Google Scholar
- 31.Wolever TM, Jenkins DJ, Ocana AM, Rao VA, Collier GR (1988) Second-meal effect: low-glycemic-index foods eaten at dinner improve subsequent breakfast glycemic response. Am J Clin Nutr 48:1041–1047Google Scholar
- 32.Acheson KJ, Schutz Y, Bessard T, Anantharaman K, Flatt JP, Jequier E (1988) Glycogen storage capacity and de novo lipogenesis during massive carbohydrate overfeeding in man. Am J Clin Nutr 48:240–247Google Scholar
- 34.Horowitz JF, Mora-Rodriguez R, Byerley LO, Coyle EF (1997) Lipolytic suppression following carbohydrate ingestion limits fat oxidation during exercise. Am J Physiol 273:E768–E775Google Scholar
- 38.Roberts R, Bickerton AS, Fielding BA, Blaak EE, Wagenmakers AJ, Chong MF, Gilbert M, Karpe F, Frayn KN (2008) Reduced oxidation of dietary fat after a short term high-carbohydrate diet. Am J Clin Nutr 87:824–831Google Scholar
- 43.Kubis HP, Hanke N, Scheibe RJ, Meissner JD, Gros G (2003) Ca2 + transients activate calcineurin/NFATc1 and initiate fast-to-slow transformation in a primary skeletal muscle culture. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 285:C56–C63Google Scholar
- 51.Rennie MJ, Ahmed A, Khogali SE, Low SY, Hundal HS, Taylor PM (1996) Glutamine metabolism and transport in skeletal muscle and heart and their clinical relevance. J Nutr 126:1142S–1149SGoogle Scholar
- 54.BSDA (2011) The 2011 UK soft drinks report: by popular demand. In: British Soft Drinks Association. http://www.britishsoftdrinks.com