European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 52, Issue 3, pp 927–935 | Cite as

The effect of almonds on inflammation and oxidative stress in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized crossover controlled feeding trial

  • Jen-Fang Liu
  • Yen-Hua Liu
  • Chiao-Ming Chen
  • Wen-Hsin Chang
  • C-Y. Oliver ChenEmail author
Original Contribution



Almond consumption is associated with ameliorations in obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia. The hypothesis of this 12-week randomized, crossover, controlled feeding trial was that almond consumption would ameliorate inflammation and oxidative stress in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (9 M, 11 F; 58 years; BMI: 26 kg/m2) with mild hyperlipidemia.


After a 2-week run-in period, the patients were assigned to either a control NCEP step II diet (control diet) or almond diet for 4 weeks with a 2-week washout period between alternative diets. Almonds approximately at 56 g/day were added to the control diet to replace 20 % of total daily calorie intake.


As compared to the control diet, the almond diet decreased IL-6 by a median 10.3 % (95 % confidence intervals 5.2, 12.6 %), CRP by a median 10.3 % (−24.1, 40.5), and TNF-α by a median 15.7 % (−0.3, 29.9). The almond diet also decreased plasma protein carbonyl by a median 28.2 % (4.7, 38.2) as compared to the C diet but did not alter plasma malondialdehyde. The A diet enhanced the resistance of LDL against Cu2+-induced oxidation by a median 16.3 % (7.4, 44.3) as compared to the C diet. Serum intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular adhesion molecule-1 were not changed by both diets.


Our results suggested that incorporation of almonds into a healthy diet could ameliorate inflammation and oxidative stress in patients with T2DM.


Almonds Antioxidants Inflammation Oxidative stress Type 2 diabetes mellitus 



Type 2 diabetes mellitus


Cardiovascular disease




C-reactive protein




Tumor necrosis factor-α


Low density protein


Soluble intra-cellular adhesion molecule-1


Soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1


Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay



We would like to express our gratitude to the Almond Board of California and LEARN weight management foundation in Taiwan for providing financial supports for the study and the volunteers for participating in the clinical trial.

Conflict of interest


Supplementary material

394_2012_400_MOESM1_ESM.doc (35 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 35 kb)
394_2012_400_MOESM2_ESM.doc (37 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOC 37 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jen-Fang Liu
    • 1
  • Yen-Hua Liu
    • 1
  • Chiao-Ming Chen
    • 2
  • Wen-Hsin Chang
    • 1
  • C-Y. Oliver Chen
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Nutrition and Health ScienceTaipei Medical UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Food Science, Nutrition and Nutraceutical BiotechnologyShih-Chien UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  3. 3.Antioxidants Research Laboratory, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on AgingTufts UniversityBostonUSA

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