The effect of almonds on inflammation and oxidative stress in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized crossover controlled feeding trial
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Almond consumption is associated with ameliorations in obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia. The hypothesis of this 12-week randomized, crossover, controlled feeding trial was that almond consumption would ameliorate inflammation and oxidative stress in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (9 M, 11 F; 58 years; BMI: 26 kg/m2) with mild hyperlipidemia.
After a 2-week run-in period, the patients were assigned to either a control NCEP step II diet (control diet) or almond diet for 4 weeks with a 2-week washout period between alternative diets. Almonds approximately at 56 g/day were added to the control diet to replace 20 % of total daily calorie intake.
As compared to the control diet, the almond diet decreased IL-6 by a median 10.3 % (95 % confidence intervals 5.2, 12.6 %), CRP by a median 10.3 % (−24.1, 40.5), and TNF-α by a median 15.7 % (−0.3, 29.9). The almond diet also decreased plasma protein carbonyl by a median 28.2 % (4.7, 38.2) as compared to the C diet but did not alter plasma malondialdehyde. The A diet enhanced the resistance of LDL against Cu2+-induced oxidation by a median 16.3 % (7.4, 44.3) as compared to the C diet. Serum intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular adhesion molecule-1 were not changed by both diets.
Our results suggested that incorporation of almonds into a healthy diet could ameliorate inflammation and oxidative stress in patients with T2DM.
KeywordsAlmonds Antioxidants Inflammation Oxidative stress Type 2 diabetes mellitus
Type 2 diabetes mellitus
Tumor necrosis factor-α
Low density protein
Soluble intra-cellular adhesion molecule-1
Soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1
Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay
We would like to express our gratitude to the Almond Board of California and LEARN weight management foundation in Taiwan for providing financial supports for the study and the volunteers for participating in the clinical trial.
Conflict of interest
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