Effects of pre-exercise feeding on serum hormone concentrations and biomarkers of myostatin and ubiquitin proteasome pathway activity
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The aim of the study was to examine the acute effects of pre-exercise ingestion of protein, carbohydrate, and a non-caloric placebo on serum concentrations of insulin and cortisol, and the intramuscular gene expression of myostatin- and ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP)-related genes following a bout of resistance exercise.
Ten untrained college-aged men participated in three resistance exercise sessions (3 × 10 at 80 % 1RM for bilateral hack squat, leg press, and leg extension) in a cross-over fashion, which were randomly preceded by protein, carbohydrate, or placebo ingestion 30 min prior to training. Pre-supplement/pre-exercise, 2 h and 6 h post-exercise muscle biopsies were obtained during each session and analyzed for mRNA fold changes in myostatin (MSTN), activin IIB, follistatin-like 3 (FSTL3), SMAD specific E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 (SMURF1), forkhead box O3, F-box protein 32 (FBXO32), and Muscle RING-finger protein-1, with beta-actin serving as the housekeeping gene. Gene expression of all genes was analyzed using real-time PCR.
Acute feeding appeared to have no significant effect on myostatin or UPP biomarkers. However, resistance exercise resulted in a significant downregulation of MSTN and FBXO32 mRNA expression and a significant upregulation in FSTL3 and SMURF1 mRNA expression (p < 0.05).
An acute bout of resistance exercise results in acute post-exercise alterations in intramuscular mRNA expression of myostatin and UPP markers suggestive of skeletal muscle growth. However, carbohydrate and protein feeding surrounding resistance exercise appear to have little influence on the acute expression of these markers.
KeywordsHypertrophy Strength Insulin Cortisol Protein
We would like to thank the subjects who participated in this study as well as all laboratory assistants who assisted with data collection and analysis. We would also like to graciously thank the reviewers who took time to critique this manuscript.
Conflict of interest
The authors have no competing interests.
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