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European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 51, Issue 3, pp 261–279 | Cite as

Effects of micronutrients on DNA repair

  • Andrew R. Collins
  • Amaya Azqueta
  • Sabine A. S. Langie
Review

Abstract

Background

DNA repair is an essential cellular function, which, by removing DNA damage before it can cause mutations, contributes crucially to the prevention of cancer. Interest in the influence of micronutrients on DNA repair activity is prompted by the possibility that the protective effects of fruits and vegetables might thus be explained. Two approaches to measuring repair—monitoring cellular removal of DNA damage and incubating cell extract with specifically damaged DNA in an in vitro assay—have been applied in cell culture, whole animal studies, and human trials. In addition, there are numerous investigations at the level of expression of DNA repair–related genes.

Results

Depending on the pathway studied and the phytochemical or food tested, there are varied reports of stimulation, inhibition or no effect on DNA repair. The clearest findings are from human supplementation trials in which lymphocytes are assessed for their repair capacity ex vivo. Studying cellular repair of strand breaks is complicated by the fact that lymphocytes appear to repair them very slowly. Applying the in vitro repair assay to human lymphocytes has revealed stimulatory effects on repair of oxidised bases by various micronutrients or a fruit- and vegetable-rich diet, while other studies have failed to demonstrate effects.

Conclusions

Despite varied results from different studies, it seems clear that micronutrients can influence DNA repair, usually but not always enhancing activity. Different modes of DNA repair are likely to be subject to different regulatory mechanisms. Measures of gene expression tend to be a poor guide to repair activity, and there is no substitute for phenotypic assays.

Keywords

DNA repair Base excision repair Nucleotide excision repair Micronutrients Antioxidants 

Notes

Acknowledgments

AA thanks the Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia (‘Juan de la Cierva’ programme, 2009) of the Spanish Government for its contribution to the financial support for this work. The Centre for Brain Ageing & Vitality is funded through the Lifelong Health and Wellbeing cross-council initiative by the MRC, BBSRC, EPSRC and ESRC.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest in preparing this review article.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew R. Collins
    • 1
  • Amaya Azqueta
    • 2
  • Sabine A. S. Langie
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical SciencesUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  2. 2.Department of Nutrition, Food Science and Toxicology, Schools of Pharmacy and SciencesUniversity of NavarraPamplonaSpain
  3. 3.Centre for Brain Ageing and Vitality, Human Nutrition Research Centre, Institute for Ageing and HealthNewcastle UniversityNewcastle upon TyneUK

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