European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 51, Issue 8, pp 947–954 | Cite as

In vitro and in vivo assessment of the glycemic index of bakery products: influence of the reformulation of ingredients

  • A. Ferrer-Mairal
  • C. Peñalva-Lapuente
  • I. Iglesia
  • L. Urtasun
  • P. De Miguel-Etayo
  • S. Remón
  • E. Cortés
  • L. A. Moreno
Original Contribution



To evaluate whether the modification of ingredients of two bakery products, muffins and bread, reduces their glycemic index, by means of in vitro and in vivo procedures.


In vitro and in vivo glycemic index were evaluated for two types of bread and two types of muffins including one standard product for each category. For the in vitro determination, kinetics of starch digestion method was used. For the in vivo procedure, postprandial glucose measured as IAUC was obtained in a group of eighteen healthy volunteers (ten did the test with muffins and eight with breads).


In in vitro, a reduction in the expected glycemic index regarding the control muffin was achieved with the partial substitution of wheat flour by a mixture of resistant starch, dextrin and lentil flour. In breads, with the partial substitution of wheat flour by a mixture of resistant starch and dextrins, a decrease in the expected glycemic index was also observed. In in vivo, a reduction in GI was also achieved both in muffin and in bread. All the obtained GI was higher in in vitro method.


Despite the fact that in vitro overestimate in vivo method, the trend in the reduction in GI seems to be similar in both methods. With the substitution assayed, a reduction in the expected glycemic index and the glycemic index were obtained both in muffins and in breads.


Glycemic index In vitro In vivo Bakery products Starch hydrolysis Blood glucose response 



The authors wish to thank all participants for their collaboration, some of whom were colleagues in the GENUD and in the Veterinary research groups. We would like to sincerely thank the Laboratorio de Análisis Clínicos. Dra. Mª Jesús Vicente Lobera for their assistance in obtaining biological samples throughout the study. Bread and Muffins were supplied by NOVAPAN S. L. Zaragoza. Spain. This study was supported by a grant from CDTI (Centro de Desarrollo Tecnológico Industrial) (Project CENIT HIGEA CEN-20072003).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest in the carrying out of the study and the writing of the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Ferrer-Mairal
    • 1
  • C. Peñalva-Lapuente
    • 1
  • I. Iglesia
    • 2
    • 3
  • L. Urtasun
    • 1
  • P. De Miguel-Etayo
    • 2
    • 3
  • S. Remón
    • 4
  • E. Cortés
    • 5
  • L. A. Moreno
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Tecnología de los AlimentosUniversidad de ZaragozaZaragozaSpain
  2. 2.GENUD “Growth, Exercise, NUtrition and Development” Research GroupUniversity of ZaragozaZaragozaSpain
  3. 3.School of Health SciencesUniversity of ZaragozaZaragozaSpain
  4. 4.I+D+I, Fundación Parque Científico Tecnológico Aula DeiZaragozaSpain
  5. 5.Novapan, S.L., Rebola-Panishop GroupZaragozaSpain

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