Combined fish oil and astaxanthin supplementation modulates rat lymphocyte function
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Higher intakes of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids that are abundant in marine fishes have been long described as a “good nutritional intervention” with increasing clinical benefits to cardiovascular health, inflammation, mental, and neurodegenerative diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of daily fish oil (FO—10 mg EPA/kg body weight (BW) and 7 mg DHA/kg BW) intake by oral gavage associated with the antioxidant astaxanthin (ASTA—1 mg/kg BW) on the redox metabolism and the functional properties of lymphocytes from rat lymph nodes.
This study was conducted by measurements of lymphocyte proliferation capacity, ROS production [superoxide (O 2 •− ) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)], nitric oxide (NO•) generation, intracellular calcium release, oxidative damage to lipids and proteins, activities of major antioxidant enzymes, GSH/GSSG content, and cytokines release.
After 45 days of FO + ASTA supplementation, the proliferation capacity of activated T- and B-lymphocytes was significantly diminished followed by lower levels of O 2 •− , H2O2 and NO• production, and increased activities of total/SOD, GR and GPx, and calcium release in cytosol. ASTA was able to prevent oxidative modification in cell structures through the suppression of the oxidative stress condition imposed by FO. l-selectin was increased by FO, and IL-1β was decreased only by ASTA supplementation.
We can propose that association of ASTA with FO could be a good strategy to prevent oxidative stress induced by polyunsaturated fatty acids and also to potentiate immuno-modulatory effects of FO.
KeywordsAntioxidant Astaxanthin Carotenoid Fish oil Leukocytes Lymphocyte Oxidative stress n-3 fatty acids
The authors are indebted to the constant assistance of Geraldo, TP. This research is supported by Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP 07/03334-6, 2009/12342-8, and 2002/09405-9), Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, and Departamento de Psicobiologia—UNIFESP/Associação Fundo de Incentivo à Psicofarmacologia (AFIP). Dr. Marcelo Paes de Barros is also indebted to the International Foundation for Science (F/3816-1) for additional funds and to Dr. Åke Lignell from BioReal AB/Fuji Chemicals (Sweden/Japan) for supplying astaxanthin-rich algal biomass for in vivo studies.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare they have no competing financial interests.
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