Influence of extra virgin olive oil diet enriched with hydroxytyrosol in a chronic DSS colitis model
- First Online:
- 911 Downloads
Recent epidemiological studies have shown that habitual consumption of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), the characteristic culinary fat of the Mediterranean area, is effective in the prevention of diverse types of digestive disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease. Many of these benefits are, in addition to its high proportion of oleic acid, due to the high content of phenolic compounds.
Six-week-old mice were randomized into three dietary groups: standard, EVOO and hydroxytyrosol-enriched EVOO. After 30 days, mice that were exposed to 3% DSS for 5 days developed acute colitis that progressed to severe chronic inflammation during a regime of 21 days of water.
Diets enriched with EVOO significantly attenuated the clinical and histological signs of damage, improving results from disease activity index and reducing about 50% the mortality caused by DSS. Moreover, hydroxytyrosol supplement showed better results. Cytokines study showed that TNF-α was maintained near to sham control and IL-10 levels were significantly improved in EVOO and EVOO plus hydroxytyrosol diet-DSS groups. In the same way, COX-2 and iNOS were downregulated, and the activation of p38 MAPK was reduced. We also observed a higher significant reduction in iNOS in hydroxytyrosol-enriched EVOO compared with EVOO alone.
EVOO diets exerted a noteworthy beneficial effect in chronic DSS-induced colitis by cytokine modulation and COX-2 and iNOS reduction via downregulation of p38 MAPK. In addition to the beneficial effect by EVOO, supplementation of the diet with hydroxytyrosol may improve chronic colitis through iNOS downregulation plus its antioxidant capacity.
KeywordsExtra virgin olive oil Hydroxytyrosol Chronic colitis Cytokines COX-2 iNOS
- 14.Okayasu I, Hatakeyama S, Yamada M, Ohkusa T, Inagaki Y, Nakaya R (1990) A novel method in the induction of reliable experimental acute and chronic ulcerative colitis in mice. Gastroenterology 98:694–702Google Scholar
- 15.Motilva V, Sánchez-Fidalgo S, Calvo JR, Talero E (2008) Mechanism of increased gastric protection after NSAID-administration in rats consuming virgin olive oil diets. ESPEN 3:e9–e16Google Scholar
- 16.Perona JS, Montero E, Sánchez-Domínguez JM, Cañizares J, Garcia M, Ruiz-Gutiérrez V (2009) Evaluation of the effect of dietary virgin olive oil on blood pressure and lipid composition of serum and low-density lipoprotein in elderly type 2 diabetic subjects. J Agric Food Chem 57:11427–11433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 18.Konstantinidou V, Covas MI, Muñoz-Aguayo D, Khymenets O, de la Torre R, Saez G, Tormos Mdel C, Toledo E, Marti A, Ruiz-Gutiérrez V, Ruiz Mendez MV, Fito M (2010) In vivo nutrigenomic effects of virgin olive oil polyphenols within the frame of the Mediterranean diet: a randomized controlled trial. FASEB J 24:2546–2557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 19.Barceló F, Perona JS, Prades J, Funari SS, Gomez-Gracia E, Conde M, Estruch R, Ruiz-Gutiérrez V (2009) Mediterranean-style diet effect on the structural properties of the erythrocyte cell membrane of hypertensive patients: the prevencion con dieta Mediterranea study. Hypertension 54:1143–1150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 20.Khymenets O, Fitó M, Touriño S, Muñoz-Aguayo D, Pujadas M, Torres JL, Joglar J, Farré M, Covas MI, de la Torre R (2010) Antioxidant activities of hydroxytyrosol main metabolites do not contribute to beneficial health effects after olive oil ingestion. Drug Metab Dispos 38:1417–1421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 21.Nieto N, Torres MI, Ríos A, Gil A (2002) Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids improve histological and biochemical alterations in rats with experimental ulcerative colitis. J Nutr 132:11–19Google Scholar
- 22.Camuesco D, Gálvez J, Nieto A, Comalada M, Rodríguez-Cabezas ME, Concha A, Xaus J, Zarzuelo A (2005) Dietary olive oil supplemented with fish oil, rich in EPA and DHA (n−3) polyunsaturated fatty acids, attenuates colonic inflammation in rats with DSS-induced colitis. J Nutr 135:687–694Google Scholar
- 25.Martín MA, Ramos S, Granado-Serrano AB, Rodríguez-Ramiro I, Trujillo M, Bravo L, Goya L (2010) Hydroxytyrosol induces antioxidant/detoxificant enzymes and Nrf2 translocation via extracellular regulated kinases and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B pathways in HepG2 cells. Mol Nutr Food Res 54:956–966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 31.Gravaghi C, La Perle KM, Ogrodwski P, Kang JX, Quimby F, Lipkin M, Lamprecht SA (2010) Cox-2 expression, PGE(2) and cytokines production are inhibited by endogenously synthesized n−3 PUFAs in inflamed colon of fat-1 mice. J Nutr Biochem. doi:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2010.03.003
- 32.Hassan A, Ibrahim A, Mbodji K, Coëffier M, Ziegler F, Bounoure F, Chardigny JM, Skiba M, Savoye G, Déchelotte P, Marion-Letellier R (2010) An α-linolenic acid-rich formula reduces oxidative stress and inflammation by regulating NF-κB in rats with TNBS-induced colitis. J Nutr 140:1714–1721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 35.Camacho-Barquero L, Villegas I, Sánchez-Calvo JM, Talero E, Sánchez-Fidalgo S, Motilva V, Alarcón de la Lastra C (2007) Curcumin, a Curcuma longa constituent, acts on MAPK p38 pathway modulating COX-2 and iNOS expression in chronic experimental colitis. Int Immunopharmacol 7:333–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 36.Docena G, Rovedatti L, Kruidenier L, Fanning A, Leakey NA, Knowles CH, Lee K, Shanahan F, Nally K, McLean PG, Di Sabatino A, MacDonald TT (2010) Down-regulation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and proinflammatory cytokine production by mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors in inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Exp Immunol 162:108–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 37.Kyriakis JM, Avruch J (2001) Mammalian mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathways activated by stress and inflammation. Physiol Rev 81:807–869Google Scholar
- 39.Kim YA, Lim SY, Rhee SH, Park KY, Kim CH, Choi BT, Lee SJ, Park YM, Choi YH (2006) Resveratrol inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in beta-amyloid-treated C6 glioma cells. Int J Mol Med 17:1069–1075Google Scholar