Effect of consumption of tomato juice enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the lipid profile, antioxidant biomarker status, and cardiovascular disease risk in healthy women
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We compared the effects of consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)-enriched tomato juice versus plain tomato juice on the serum lipid profile and levels of biomarkers related to antioxidant status and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in women.
Eighteen healthy women participated in a 2-week intervention trial involving the daily intake of 500 mL of n-3 PUFA-enriched juice (n = 11) or plain tomato juice (n = 7). Each serving of enriched juice provided 250 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexanoic acid (DHA). Both juices provided natural antioxidant compounds such as phenolics (181 mg) and lycopene (26.5 mg).
Intervention with the enriched juice had no effect on the lipid profile, and serum levels of triglycerides and cholesterol (total, LDL, and HDL) remained unchanged. The serum antioxidant status improved following juice intake, as revealed by an increase in total antioxidant capacity and a slight decrease in lipid peroxidation. The serum levels of homocysteine, a cardiovascular risk factor, decreased following n-3 PUFA-enriched juice consumption. A decrease in vascular adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) levels was also noted after intake of either plain or enriched tomato juice, whereas intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) levels only decreased following intake of the enriched juice.
Overall, stronger positive amelioration of CVD risk factors was observed following the intake of n-3 PUFA-enriched juice than after plain tomato juice consumption, which suggested a possible synergistic action between n-3 PUFAs and tomato antioxidants.
KeywordsCardiovascular diseases (CVD) PUFAs Tomato juice Antioxidants Homocysteine Lipid oxidation VCAM-1 ICAM-1
We thank to Hero España S.A. and Denomega Nutritional Oil for providing the samples and ingredients of this study. The authors are grateful to the Ministry of Education and Science of the Spanish Government for the project AGL 2006-26965-E, and to the Fundación Seneca of the Murcia Regional Government for the project 05774/PI/07.
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