Differential effects of 1α,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol on MCP-1 and adiponectin production in human white adipocytes
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Obesity is characterized by a low-grade inflammation in white adipose tissue (WAT), which promotes insulin resistance. Low serum levels of 1α,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (DHCC) associate with insulin resistance and higher body mass index although it is unclear whether vitamin D supplementation improves insulin sensitivity. We investigated the effects of DHCC on adipokine gene expression and secretion in adipocytes focusing on two key factors with pro-inflammatory [monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2)] and anti-inflammatory [adiponectin (ADIPOQ)] effects.
Pre-adipocytes were isolated from human subcutaneous WAT and cultured until full differentiation. Differentiated adipocytes were either pre-treated with DHCC (10−7 M) and subsequently incubated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα, 100 ng/mL) or concomitantly incubated with TNFα/DHCC. MCP1 and adiponectin mRNA expression was measured by RT–PCR and protein release by ELISA.
DHCC was not toxic and did not affect adipocyte morphology or the mRNA levels of adipocyte-specific genes. TNFα induced a significant increase in CCL2 mRNA and protein secretion, while DHCC alone reduced CCL2 mRNA expression (~25%, p < 0.05). DHCC attenuated TNFα-induced CCL2 mRNA expression in both pre-incubation (~15%, p < 0.05) and concomitant (~60%, p < 0.01) treatments. TNFα reduced ADIPOQ mRNA (~80%) and secretion (~35%). DHCC alone decreased adiponectin secretion to a similar degree (~35%, p < 0.05). Concomitant treatment with DHCC/TNFα for 48 h had an additive effect, resulting in a pronounced reduction in adiponectin secretion (~70%).
DHCC attenuates MCP-1 and adiponectin production in human adipocytes, thereby reducing the expression of both pro- and anti-inflammatory factors. These effects may explain the difficulties so far in determining the role of DHCC in insulin sensitivity and obesity in humans.