Glucose and insulin responses to whole grain breakfasts varying in soluble fiber, β-glucan
A high intake of whole grains containing soluble fiber has been shown to lower glucose and insulin responses in overweight humans and humans with type 2 diabetes.
Aim of the study
We investigated the linearity of this response after consumption of 5 breakfast cereal test meals containing wheat and/or barley to provide varying amounts of soluble fiber, β-glucan (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 g).
Seventeen normoglycemic, obese women at increased risk for insulin resistance consumed 5 test meals within a randomized cross-over design after consuming controlled diets for 2 days. Blood samples for glucose and insulin response were obtained prior to and 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after consuming the test meals.
Consumption of 10 g of β-glucan significantly reduced peak glucose response at 30 min and delayed the rate of glucose response. Area under the curve for 2 h-postprandial glycemic response was not affected by β-glucan content. However, peak and area under the curve of insulin responses were significantly affected by the β-glucan amount in an inverse linear relationship.
These data suggest that acute consumption of 10 g of β-glucan is able to induce physiologically beneficial effects on postprandial insulin responses in obese women at risk for insulin resistance.
Keywordssoluble fiber obesity β-glucan insulin resistance glucose
We express our gratitude to the staff of the Beltsville Human Study Facility, including the research kitchen staff: Evelyn Lashley, Sue Burns, Diane Shegogue, and Mattie Long and research assistants: Willa Mae Clark, Demetria Fletcher, and Razia Hussain We acknowledge ConAgra (Omaha, NE) for generously supplying the barley. And, especially we wish to thank each volunteer for their participation and commitment to making this study possible.
- 1.Behall KM, Scholfield DJ, Hallfrisch J (2005) Comparison of hormone and glucose responses of overweight women to barley and oats. J Am Coll Nutr 24:182–188Google Scholar
- 2.Behall KM, Scholfield DJ, Hallfrisch J (2004) Diets containing barley significantly reduce lipids in mildly hypercholesterolemic men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 80:1185–1193Google Scholar
- 3.Behall KM, Scholfield DJ, Hallfrisch J (2004) Lipids significantly reduced by diets containing barley in moderately hypercholesterolemic men. J Am Coll Nutr 23:55–62Google Scholar
- 7.Dubois C, Armand M, Senft M, Portugal H, Pauli AM, Bernard PM, Lafont H, Lairon D (1995) Chronic oat bran intake alters postprandial lipemia and lipoproteins in healthy adults. Am J Clin Nutr 61:325–333Google Scholar
- 9.Hagander B, Schersten B, Asp NG, Sartor G, Agardh CD, Schrezenmeir J, Kasper H, Ahren B, Lundquist I (1984) Effect of dietary fibre on blood glucose, plasma immunoreactive insulin, C-peptide and GIP responses in non insulin dependent (type 2) diabetics and controls. Acta Med Scand 215:205–213Google Scholar
- 12.Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Vuksan V, Vidgen E, Parker T, Faulkner D, Mehling CC, Garsetti M, Testolin G, Cunnane SC, Ryan MA, Corey PN (2002) Soluble fiber intake at a dose approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for a claim of health benefits: serum lipid risk factors for cardiovascular disease assessed in a randomized controlled crossover trial. Am J Clin Nutr 75:834–839Google Scholar
- 14.Kim H, Behall KM, Vinyard B, Conway J (2006) Short-term satiety and glycemic response after consumption of whole grains with various amounts of β-glucan. Cereal Foods World 51:29–33Google Scholar
- 15.Liese AD, Roach AK, Sparks KC, Marquart L, D’Agostino RB Jr, Mayer-Davis EJ (2003) Whole-grain intake and insulin sensitivity: the insulin resistance atherosclerosis study. Am J Clin Nutr 78:965–971Google Scholar
- 18.McCleary B, Glennie-Holmes M (1985) Enzymatic quantification of (1–3), (1–4)-β-d-glucan in barley and malt. J Inst Brew 95:285–295Google Scholar
- 20.Mellen PB, Liese AD, Tooze JA, Vitolins MZ, Wagenknecht LE, Herrington DM (2007) Whole-grain intake and carotid artery atherosclerosis in a multiethnic cohort: the insulin resistance atherosclerosis study. Am J Clin Nutr 85:1495–1502Google Scholar
- 26.Reaven GM (1995) Pathophysiology of insulin resistance in human disease. Physiol Rev 75:473–486Google Scholar
- 28.Wood PJ, Beer MU, Butler G (2000) Evaluation of role of concentration and molecular weight of oat beta-glucan in determining effect of viscosity on plasma glucose and insulin following an oral glucose load. Br J Nutr 84:19–23Google Scholar