Is a lower dose of vitamin D supplementation enough to increase 25(OH)D status in a sunny country?
- 215 Downloads
Calcium and vitamin D are essential nutrients for bone metabolism Vitamin D can either be obtained from dietary sources or cutaneous synthesis. The study was conducted in subtropic weather; therefore, some might believe that the levels of solar radiation would be sufficient in this area.
Aim of the study
To evaluate calcium and vitamin D supplementation in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis living in a sunny country.
A 3-month controlled clinical trial with 64 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, mean age 62 ± 8 years. They were randomly assigned to either the supplement group, who received 1,200 mg of calcium carbonate and 400 IU (10 μg) of vitamin D3, or the control group. Dietary intake assessment was performed, bone mineral density and body composition were measured, and biochemical markers of bone metabolism were analyzed.
Considering all participants at baseline, serum vitamin D was under 75 nmol/l in 91.4% of the participants. The concentration of serum 25(OH)D increased significantly (p = 0.023) after 3 months of supplementation from 46.67 ± 13.97 to 59.47 ± 17.50 nmol/l. However, the dose given was limited in effect, and 86.2% of the supplement group did not reach optimal levels of 25(OH)D. Parathyroid hormone was elevated in 22.4% of the study group. After the intervention period, mean parathyroid hormone tended to decrease in the supplement group (p = 0.063).
The dose given (400 IU/day) was not enough to achieve 25(OH)D concentration, considered optimal for bone health.
KeywordsDietary intakes Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D Vitamin D supplement Postmenopausal Osteoporosis
Financial Support: CNPq no. 401883/2005-1 and CAPES.
- 8.Calvo MS, Whiting SJ, Barton CN (2005) Vitamin D intake: a global perspective of current status. J Nutr 135:310–315Google Scholar
- 9.Cashman KD (2007) Diet, nutrition, and bone health. J Nutr 137:2507S–2512SGoogle Scholar
- 15.Feskanich D, Willet WC, Colditz GA (2003) Calcium, vitamin D, milk consumption, and hip fractures: a prospective study among postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 77:504–511Google Scholar
- 18.Holick MF (1999) Vitamin D. In: Shills M et al (eds) Modern nutrition in health and disease, 9th edn. Williams and Wilkins, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
- 28.Moore CE, Murphy MM, Holick MF (2005) Vitamin D intakes by children and adults in the United States Differ among ethnic groups. J Nutr 135:2478–2485Google Scholar
- 29.Neuprez A, Bruyère O, Collette J, Reginster J (2007) Vitamin D inadequacy in Belgian postmenopausal osteoporotic women. PMC Public Health 7(147):64–73Google Scholar
- 30.Nieves JW (2005) Osteoporosis: the role of micronutrients. Am J Clin Nutr 81:1232S–1239SGoogle Scholar
- 31.NIH (2000) Consensus development program: consensus statements. Osteoporosis prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. 17(1), 27–29 March. Website: http://odp.od.nih.gov/consensus/cons/111/111intro.htm
- 33.Pinheiro MM, Schuch NJ, Genaro PS, Ciconelli RM, Ferraz MB, Martini LA (2009) Nutrient intakes related to osteoporotic fractures in men and women—The Brazilian Osteoporosis Study (BRAZOS). Nutr J 8:6. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-8-6
- 39.Talwar SA, Aloia JF, Pollack S, Yeh JK (2007) Dose response to vitamin D supplementation among postmenopausal African American women. Am J Clin Nutr 86:1657–1662Google Scholar
- 42.Vieth R (1999) Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and safety. Am J Clin Nutr 69:842–856Google Scholar
- 43.Vieth R, Bischoff-Ferrari H, Boucher BJ, Dawson-Hughes B, Garland CF, Heaney RP, Holick MF, Hollis BW, Lamberg-Allardt C, McGrath JJ, Norman AW, Scragg R, Whiting SJ, Willett WC, Zittermann A (2007) The urgent need to recommend an intake of vitamin D that is effective. Am J Clin Nutr 85:649–650Google Scholar
- 45.World Health Organization (WHO) (1994) Study group assessment of fracture risk and its application to screening for postmenopausal osteoporosis. WHO Technical Report Series 843, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar