European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 49, Issue 4, pp 219–225

Decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and insulin resistance were the most common criteria in 12- to 19-year-old adolescents

  • Nurten Budak
  • Ahmet Öztürk
  • Mümtaz Mazicioglu
  • Cevad Yazici
  • Fahri Bayram
  • Selim Kurtoglu
Original Contribution



Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterized by a group of metabolic risk factors leading to an increase in diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. It is known that the pathologic processes such as hyperinsulinemia and atherogenic risk profile associated with the development of MetS begin during childhood and adolescence.

Aim of the study

To determine the prevalence of MetS and assess the association between MetS and certain demographic and lifestyle factors in a representative adolescent population.


The study was carried out in central and ten districts located around Kayseri Province, Central Anatolia. A total of 790 adolescents aged from 12 to 19 years were selected systematically from the schools. Criteria of MetS were modified from Adult Treatment Panel III: (1) waist circumference > 90th percentile (aged between 12 and 17 years) and >102 cm in male, >88 cm in female (for aged 18 and 19 years), (2) serum triglycerides [≥136 mg/dl (aged between 12 and 16 years) and ≥150 mg/dl (for 17 and 19 years)], (3) high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [≤40 mg/dl (males) and ≤50 mg/dl (females)], (4) systolic blood pressure ≥ 95th percentile for gender, age and height, (5) insulin resistance HOMA index < 3.16. Multivariate regression model was performed to search for the association between MetS and demographic and lifestyle factors including gender, age, body mass index, settlement, socioeconomic class, smoking habit, physical activity and family history for diseases (cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus).


The overall prevalence of MetS was found as 10.8%. The prevalence was significantly higher in males than in females (13.5 and 8.6%, respectively). Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and insulin resistance were the most common criteria of the syndrome. According to the analysis, only gender and high socioeconomic class were weak-positive related factors with MetS.


High prevalence of MetS especially among overweight and obese adolescents is a serious health problem. Early identification of the syndrome would contribute greatly to the prevention of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in youth.


Metabolic syndrome Insulin resistance High-density lipoprotein cholesterol Adolescents 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nurten Budak
    • 1
  • Ahmet Öztürk
    • 2
  • Mümtaz Mazicioglu
    • 3
  • Cevad Yazici
    • 4
  • Fahri Bayram
    • 5
  • Selim Kurtoglu
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Atatürk School of HealthErciyes UniversityKayseriTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Biostatistics, Medical FacultyErciyes UniversityKayseriTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Family Medicine, Medical FacultyErciyes UniversityKayseriTurkey
  4. 4.Department of Biochemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, Medical FacultyErciyes UniversityKayseriTurkey
  5. 5.Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical FacultyErciyes UniversityKayseriTurkey
  6. 6.Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Medical FacultyErciyes UniversityKayseriTurkey

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