Effects of high and normal soyprotein breakfasts on satiety and subsequent energy intake, including amino acid and ‘satiety’ hormone responses
- 538 Downloads
The role of dietary protein in short term satiety is of interest with respect to body weight regulation.
To compare the effects of a high versus a normal soyprotein breakfast on satiety and subsequent energy intake (EI), including ‘satiety’ hormones and plasma amino acid responses.
Twenty-five healthy subjects (mean ± SEM, BMI: 23.9 ± 0.3 kg/m2; age: 22 ± 1 years) received a subject-specific standardized breakfast: a custard with soy as single protein type with either 10/55/35 (normal-protein) or 25/55/20 (high-protein) En% protein/carbohydrate/fat in a randomized, single-blind design. Appetite profile (Visual Analogue Scale, VAS), plasma glucose, insulin, Glucagon-like Peptide 1, ghrelin, and amino acid concentrations were determined for 4 h, determining the sensitive time point to assess EI. Since at 180 min glucose and insulin concentrations still were significantly different, in a second set of experiments subjects received an ad lib lunch at 180 min after the breakfasts; EI was assessed.
Overall the 25 En% soy-custard was rated as being more satiating than the 10 En% soy-custard (P < 0.01) and there was a difference at 20 min after breakfast (64 ± 5 vs. 52 ± 5 mmVAS, P < 0.05), related to higher postprandial taurine concentrations (P < 0.05). Insulin response was increased more after the 25 En% than after the 10 En% soy-custard (AUC: 7,520 ± 929 vs. 4,936 ± 468 mU/l h, P < 0.001). There was no difference in EI (25 En%: 3,212 ± 280 kJ vs. 10 En%: 3,098 ± 286 kJ, ns).
A high soyprotein breakfast is more satiating than a normal soyprotein breakfast related to elevated taurine and insulin concentrations.
Keywordssatiety energy intake soyprotein taurine insulin
M. A. B. Veldhorst, A. G. Nieuwenhuizen, A. Hochstenbach-Waelen, K. R. Westerterp, M. P. K. J. Engelen, R.-J. M. Brummer, N. E. P. Deutz, and M. S. Westerterp-Plantenga designed the study. M. A. B. Veldhorst and A. Hochstenbach-Waelen collected and analyzed the data. M. A. B. Veldhorst wrote the manuscript and A. G. Nieuwenhuizen, K. R. Westerterp, M. P. K. J. Engelen, N. E. P. Deutz, and M. S. Westerterp-Plantenga contributed to interpretation of the data and reviewed the manuscript. The study was executed under supervision of A. G. Nieuwenhuizen, K. R. Westerterp, and M. S. Westerterp-Plantenga. Conflict of interest None of the authors had a personal or financial conflict of interest.
- 2.Anderson GH, Tecimer SN, Shah D, Zafar TA (2004) Protein source, quantity, and time of consumption determine the effect of proteins on short-term food intake in young men. J Nutr 134:3011–3015Google Scholar
- 4.Clifton PM, Keogh JB, Noakes M (2008) Long-term effects of a high-protein weight-loss diet. Am J Clin Nutr 87:23–29Google Scholar
- 6.Fujihira E, Takahashi H, Nakazawa M (1970) Effect of long-term feeding of taurine in hereditary hyperglycemic obese mice. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 18:1636–1642Google Scholar
- 7.Halton TL, Hu FB (2004) The effects of high protein diets on thermogenesis, satiety and weight loss: a critical review. J Am Coll Nutr 23:373–385Google Scholar
- 8.Harris JA, Benedict FG (1919) A biometric study of basal metabolism in manGoogle Scholar
- 14.Pi-Sunyer FX (1993) Medical hazards of obesity. Ann Intern Med 119:655–660Google Scholar
- 15.Seidell JC (1995) Obesity in Europe. Obes Res 3(Suppl 2):89s–93sGoogle Scholar
- 20.Stipanuk MH, Dominy JE Jr, Lee JI, Coloso RM (2006) Mammalian cysteine metabolism: new insights into regulation of cysteine metabolism. J Nutr 136:1652S–1659SGoogle Scholar
- 21.Stubbs RJ, Hughes DA, Johnstone AM, Rowley E, Reid C, Elia M, Stratton R, Delargy H, King N, Blundell JE (2000) The use of visual analogue scales to assess motivation to eat in human subjects: a review of their reliability and validity with an evaluation of new hand-held computerized systems for temporal tracking of appetite ratings. Br J Nutr 84:405–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 23.Thut PD, Hruska RE, Huxtable RJ, Bressler R (1976) Taurine. Huxtable RJ, Barbeau A (eds) pp 357–364Google Scholar
- 24.Uhe AM, Collier GR, O’Dea K (1992) A comparison of the effects of beef, chicken and fish protein on satiety and amino acid profiles in lean male subjects. J Nutr 122:467–472Google Scholar
- 27.Velasquez MT, Bhathena SJ (2007) Role of dietary soy protein in obesity. Int J Med Sci 4:72–82Google Scholar
- 28.Weigle DS, Breen PA, Matthys CC, Callahan HS, Meeuws KE, Burden VR, Purnell JQ (2005) A high-protein diet induces sustained reductions in appetite, ad libitum caloric intake, and body weight despite compensatory changes in diurnal plasma leptin and ghrelin concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr 82:41–48Google Scholar
- 30.Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Westerterp KR, Rubbens M, Verwegen CR, Richelet JP, Gardette B (1999) Appetite at “high altitude” [Operation Everest III (Comex-‘97)]: a simulated ascent of Mount Everest. J Appl Physiol 87:391–399Google Scholar
- 33.Young VR (1991) Soy protein in relation to human protein and amino acid nutrition. J Am Diet Assoc 91:828–835Google Scholar
- 34.Zhang M, Bi LF, Fang JH, Su XL, Da GL, Kuwamori T, Kagamimori S (2004) Beneficial effects of taurine on serum lipids in overweight or obese non-diabetic subjects. Amino Acids 26:267–271Google Scholar