European Journal of Nutrition

, 47:310 | Cite as

Overweight and obesity and their relation to dietary habits and socio-demographic characteristics among male primary school children in Al-Hassa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

  • Tarek Tawfik Amin
  • Ali Ibrahim Al-Sultan
  • Ayub Ali
ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION

Abstract

Background

Several studies were carried out to study the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Saudi children, but those assessed the association between eating habits, socio-demographic differentials and obesity in these children are scarce.

Objectives

To assess the magnitude of obesity and overweight among male primary schoolchildren and to find the possible association between obesity/overweight with dietary habits and socio-demographic differentials among them.

Study design and methods

A cross-sectional descriptive study including 1,139 Saudi male enrolled in the fifth and sixth grades in public primary schools in Al Hassa, KSA, through a multistage random sampling technique, submitted to interview using Youth and Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire, gathering data regarding dietary intake, some dietary habits, followed by anthropometric measurements with calculation of body mass index, the interpretation of which was based on using Cole’s tables for standard definition of overweight and obesity. Socio-demographics data were collected through parental questionnaire form. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS 12 (SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL, USA), univariate as well as multivariate analyses were conducted.

Results

The age ranged from 10 to 14 years. The prevalence of overweight among the included subjects was 14.2% while obesity was 9.7%, more in urban, older age students, mothers of obese and overweight were less educated, more working. Missing and or infrequent intake of breakfast at home, frequent consumption of fast foods, low servings of fruits, vegetables, milk and dairy product per day, with frequent consumption of sweets/candy and carbonated drinks were all predictors of obesity and overweight among the included male schoolchildren.

Conclusion

The prevalence of childhood obesity is escalating and approaching figures reported in the developed countries. Less healthy dietary habits and poor food choices may be responsible for this high prevalence.

Keywords

childhood obesity body mass index dietary habits Saudi Arabia 

References

  1. 1.
    Al Nuaim AR, Bamgboye EA, Al Herbish A (1996) The pattern of growth and obesity in Saudi Arabian male school children. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 20:1000–1005Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Al-Saeed WY, Al-Dawood KM, Bukhari IA, Bahnassy A (2007) Prevalence and socioeconomic risk factors of obesity among urban female students in Al-Khobar city, Eastern Saudi Arabia 2003. Obes Rev 8(2):93–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Deitz WH (2000) Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. BMJ 320:1240–1246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    De Vito E, La Torre G, Langiano E, Berardi D, Ricciardi G (1999) Overweight and obesity among secondary school children in Central Italy. Eur J Epidemiol 15:649–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Deitz WH (2004) Overweight in childhood and adolescence. N Engl J Med 350:855–857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    El Hazmi M, Warsy AS (2002) The prevalence of obesity and overweight in 1–18 year old Saudi children. Ann Saudi Med 22:303–307Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fontaine KR, Redden DT, Wang C, Westfall AO, Allison DB (2003) Years of life lost due to obesity. JAMA 2899:187–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gillis LJ, Bar-Or O (2003) Food away from home, sugar-sweetened drink consumption and juvenile obesity. J Am Coll Nutr 22(6):539–545Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hanley JG, Harris SB, Gittlesohn J, Wolever MS, Saksvig B (2000) Overweight among children and adolescents in a Native Canadian Community: prevalence and associated factors. Am J Clin Nutr 71:693–700Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Heaney RP, Davies KM, Barger-Lux MJ (2002) Calcium and weight: clinical studies. J Am Coll Nutr 21:152S–155SGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hesketh K, Wake M, Water E (2004) Body mass index and parent-reported self esteem in elementary school children: evidence for a causal relationship. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 28:1233–1237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    James PT (2004) Obesity: the worldwide epidemic. Clin Dermatol 22:276–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Katzmarzyk PT, Jenssen I (2004) The economic costs associated with physical inactivity and obesity in Canada: An update. Can J App Physiol 29:90–115Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kelshidi R, Pour MH, Sarraf-Zadegan N, Sadry GH, Ansari R et al (2003) Obesity and associated environmental factors in Iranian adolescents: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program–Heart Health Promotion from Childhood. Pediatr Int 45:435–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lahmann PH, Lissner L, Gullberg B et al (2000) Socio-demographic factors associated with long term weight gain, current body fatness, and central adiposity in Swedish women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 24:685–694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Magbool G et al (1993) Weight and height of Saudi children aged 6 to 16 years from the eastern province. Ann Saudi Med 13(4):344–349Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Manson JE, Bassuk SS (2003) Obesity in the United States. A fresh look at its high toll. JAMA 289:229–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Merchant AT, Dehghan M, Cook DB, Anad SS (2007) Diet, physical activity, and adiposity in children in poor and rich neighborhoods: a cross-sectional comparison. Nutr J 6:1. http://www.nutritionj.com/contents/6/1/1
  19. 19.
    Must A, Strauss RS (1999) Risks and consequences of childhood and adolescent obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 23(suppl 2):S2–S11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Neumark-Sztainzer D, Story M, Hannan PJ, Stat M, Croll J (2002) Overweight status and eating pattern among adolescent: where do youth stand in comparison with the healthy people 2010 objectives? Am J Public Health 92:844–850Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nicklas TA, Baranowsky T, Cullen KW, Berenson G (2001) Eating pattern, dietary quality and obesity. J Am Coll Nutr 20:599–608Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    O’Dea JA, Wilson R (2006) Socio-cognitive and nutritional factors associated with body mass index in children and adolescents: possibilities for childhood obesity prevention. Health Edu Res 26(6):796–805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pereira MA, Jacobs DRJ, Van Horn L et al (2002) Dairy consumption, obesity, and insulin resistance syndrome in young adults: the CARDIA study. JAMA 287:2081–2089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rockett HRH, Breitenbach MA, Frazier AL et al (1997) Validation of a youth/adolescent food frequency questionnaire. Prev Med 26:808–816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rockett HR, Wolf AM, Colditz GA (1995) Development and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to access diets of older children and adolescent. J Am Diet Assoc 95:336–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Triches RM, Giugliani ERJ (2005) Obesity, eating habits, and nutritional knowledge among school children. Rev Saude Publica 39(4):1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Veugelers PJ, Fitzgerald AL (2005) Prevalence and risk factors for childhood overweight and obesity. CMAJ 173:607–613Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wang Y (2001) Cross-national comparison of childhood obesity: the epidemic and the relationship between obesity and socio-economic status. Int J Epidemiol 30:1129–1136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wang Y, monterio CA, Popkin BM (2000) Trend of obesity and underweight in older children and adolescents in the USA, Brazil, China, and Russia. Am J Clin Nutr 75:971–977Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    World Health Organization (1998) Global prevalence and secular trends in obesity. In: Obesity preventing and managing the global epidemic, Report of a WHO Consultation on Obesity. WHO, Geneva, pp 17–40Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Spinger 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tarek Tawfik Amin
    • 1
  • Ali Ibrahim Al-Sultan
    • 2
  • Ayub Ali
    • 1
  1. 1.Family and Community Medicine Dept., College of MedicineKing Faisal University-Al HassaAl-HassaSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Internal Medicine Dept., College of MedicineKing Faisal University-Al-HassaAl-HassaSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations