Comparison of enzymatically synthesized inulin, resistant maltodextrin and clofibrate effects on biomarkers of metabolic disease in rats fed a high-fat and high-sucrose (cafeteria) diet
- 473 Downloads
While naturally occurring inulin has anti-hyperlipidemic effects in animals and humans, health effects of synthetic inulin with different degrees of fructose polymerization remain poorly understood.
Aim of the study
Our study aimed at distinguishing health effects of synthetic inulin with different degrees of fructose polymerization (DP) from those of resistant maltodextrin and clofibrate.
We examined effects of synthetic inulin on serum and liver lipid profiles and blood biochemical parameters in rats fed a high-fat and high-sucrose (HF, cafeteria) diet when compared to resistant maltodextrin and clofibrate.
Treatment with inulin (average DP = 6–8, 16–17 and 23) and resistant maltodextrin for 3 weeks reduced the elevation in liver levels of triacylglycerol and total cholesterol of rats fed the cafeteria diet but not the standard diet. In these groups, inulin (average DP = 16–17) significantly reduced the portal plasma glucose level. Moreover, the levels of portal plasma propionate and circulating serum adiponectin, which were decreased in cafeteria rats, recovered to nearly normal levels after administration of inulin (average DP = 16–17). In addition, the dietary inulin suppressed elevation in levels of portal plasma insulin and circulating serum leptin and induction of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase mRNAs in the liver of cafeteria rats, consistent with the reduction of liver lipids. The dietary inulin and clofibrate markedly reduced triacylglycerol levels in serum very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and liver and epididymal adipose tissue weights of cafeteria rats; the extent of suppression by the dietary inulin was higher than that by clofibrate. No additive or synergistic effect of the dietary inulin and clofibrate was found in decrease in circulating serum VLDL and liver lipid levels.
These observations indicate that the dietary inulin may prevent the development of metabolic disease such as hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia caused by intake of cafeteria diet, in association with suppression of liver lipogenesis.
Keywordssynthetic inulin anti-metabolic disease clofibrate propionate glucose
Carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein
Degree of polymerization
- HMG-CoA reductase
3–hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase
Peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor
Sterol regulatory element-binding protein
White adipose tissue
We gratefully acknowledge Satoko Ishikawa, Tomoaki Fukuyama, Shiho Taniguchi, Akihiro Oumi, and Shuji Kamata for excellent technical assistance.
- 2.Combs TP, Berg AH, Obici S, Scherer PE, Rossetti L (2001) Endogenous glucose production is inhibited by the adipose-derived protein Acrp30. J Clin Invest 108:1875–1881Google Scholar
- 5.Fruebis J, Tsao TS, Javorschi S, Ebbets-Reed D, Erickson MR, Yen FT, Bihain BE, Lodish HF (2001) Proteolytic cleavage product of 30-kDa adipocyte complement-related protein increases fatty acid oxidation in muscle and causes weight loss in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:2005–3010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 8.Kim M, Shin HK (1998) The water-soluble extract of chicory influences serum and liver lipid concentrations, cecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations and fecal lipid excretion in rats. J Nutr 128:1731–1736Google Scholar
- 10.Levrat M-A, Remesy C, Demigne C (1991) High propionic acid fermentations and mineral accumulation in the cecum of rats adapted to different levels of inulin. J Nutr 121:1730–1737Google Scholar
- 12.Nishina PM, Freedland RA (1990) Effects of propionate on lipid biosynthesis in isolated rat hepatocytes. J Nutr 120:668–673Google Scholar
- 13.Osabe M, Sugatani J, Fukuyama T, Ikushiro S, Ikara A, Miwa M (2008) Expression of hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 and 1A6 correlated with increased expression of the nuclear constitutive androstane receptor and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor a in male rats fed a high-fat and high-sucrose diet. Drug Metab Dispos 36:294–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 14.Rao AV (1999) Dose–response effects of inulin and oligofructose on intestinal bifidogenesis effects. J Nutr 129:1442S–1445SGoogle Scholar
- 16.Sugatani J, Nishitani S, Yamakawa K, Yoshinari K, Sueyoshi T, Nagishi M, Miwa M (2005) Transcriptional regulation of human UGT1A1 gene expression: activated glucocorticoid receptor enhances constitutive androstane receptor/pregnane X receptor-mediated UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 regulation with glucocorticoid receptor-interacting protein 1. Mol Pharmacol 67:845–855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 17.Sugatani J, Wada T, Osabe M, Yamakawa K, Yoshinari K, Miwa M (2006) Dietary inulin alleviates hepatic steatosis and xenobiotics-induced liver injury in rats fed a high-fat and high-sucrose diet association with the suppression of hepatic cytochrome P450 and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α expression. Drug Metab Dispos 34:1677–1687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 18.Usui S, Hara Y, Hosaki S, Okazaki M (2002) A new on-line dual enzymatic method for simultaneous quantification of cholesterol and triglycerides in lipoproteins by HPLC. J Lipids Res 43:805–814Google Scholar