Advertisement

European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 46, Issue 7, pp 383–390 | Cite as

Implications of oxidative stress in high sucrose low magnesium diet fed rats

  • Dharam P. Chaudhary
  • Ravneet K. Boparai
  • Devi D. Bansal
ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION

Abstract

Background

Magnesium deficiency as well as excess sucrose in the diet have been shown to be associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

Aim of the study

In the present study we have investigated the combined effect of low magnesium high sucrose diet on the development of oxidative stress in rats.

Methods

Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups and fed control (C), low magnesium (LM), high sucrose (HS) and low magnesium high sucrose (HSLM) diet for a period of 3 months. Levels of various antioxidants, viz. ascorbic acid, vitamin E, uric acid, glutathione and non-protein thiols were determined along with malondialdehyde levels (lipid peroxidation marker). Anti-oxidant enzyme activities were determined in livers of experimental diet fed animals.

Results

Compared to controls, significantly increased lipid peroxidation was observed in plasma and liver tissue of animals in the three experimental groups, however, the combined HSLM group showed greater lipid peroxidation. Levels of various antioxidants fell significantly in plasma and tissue of LM, HS and HSLM rats. Total thiols as well as liver non-protein thiols followed a similar trend with the greatest drop in anti-oxidant potential seen in the HSLM rats. The activities of the anti-oxidant enzymes viz. SOD, GST and catalase also declined considerably in test animals w.r.t controls, with the HSLM group showing the lowest activities.

Conclusion

These findings suggest that a diet low in magnesium and high in sucrose causes oxidative stress in rats, as reflected by increased lipid peroxidation and reduced anti-oxidant potential.

Keywords

sucrose low magnesium oxidative stress lipid peroxidation anti- oxidant enzymes 

References

  1. 1.
    Bakker SJ, Uzerman RJ, Teerlink J, Westerholff HV, Gans RO, Heine RJ (2000) Cytosolic triglycerides and oxidative stress in central obesity; the missing link between excessive atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, and beta cell failure. Atherosclerosis 148:17–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Beutler E, Duron O, Kelly BM (1963) Improved method for the determination of blood glutathione. J Lab Clin Med 61:882–888Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brownlee M (2001) Biochemistry and molecular cell biology of diabetic complications. Nature 414:813–820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brownlee M, Cerami A (1981) The biochemistry of the complications of diabetes mellitus. Annu Rev Biochem 50:385–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bruegere CM, Nowacki W, Gueux E, Keryszko J, Rock E, Rayssigiuer Y, Mazur A (1991) Accelerated thymus involution in magnesium deficient rats in related to enhanced apoptosis and sensitivity to oxidative stress. Br J Nutr 81:405Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Buckdorfer KR, Kari-Kari BPB, Kahn IN, Yudkin J (1972) Activity of lipogenic enzymes and plasma triglyceride levels in the rat and chicken as determined by nature of dietary fat and dietary carbohydrate. Nutr Metab 14:228–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Buege JA, Aust SD (1978) Microsomal lipid peroxidation. Methods Enzymol 52:302–310Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bunce GE, Li BW, Price NO, Greenstreet R (1974) Distribution of calcium and magnesium in rat kidney homogenate fractions accompanying magnesium deficiency induced nephrocalcinosis. Exp Mol Pathol 21:16–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Busserolles J, Rock E, Gueux E, Mazur A, Grolier P, Rayssiguier Y (2002) Short term consumption of high sucrose diet has a pro-oxidant effect in rats. Br J Nutr 87:337–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chaudhary DP, Boparai RK, Sharma R, Bansal DD (2004) Studies on the development of an insulin resistance rat model by chronic feeding of high sucrose low magnesium diet. Magnesium Res 17:293–300Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Coulston AM, Hollenbeck CB, Swislocki ALM, Chen YD, Reaven GM (1987) Deleterious metabolic effects of high carbohydrate, sucrose containing diet in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Am J Med 82:213–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dickens BF, Weglicki WB, Li YS, Mak IT (1992) Magnesium deficiency in-vitro enhances free radical induced intracellular oxidation and cytotoxicity in endothelial cells. FEBS Lett 311:187–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    El Hindi HM, Amer HA (1989) Effect of thiamine, magnesium and sulphate salts on growth, thiamine levels and serum lipid constituents in rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 35:505–510Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Esterbaur H, Gebicki J, Puhl H, Jurgens G (1992) The role of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in oxidative modification of LDL. Free Radic Biol Med 13:341–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Faure P, Rossini E, Lafond JL, Richard MJ, Favier A, Halimi S (1997) Vitamin E improves free radical defense system potential and insulin sensitivity of rats fed high fructose diet. J Nutr 127:103–107Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Frankel EN, Neff WE (1983) Formation of malondialdehyde from lipid peroxidation products. Biochim Biophys Acta 754:264–270Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Habig WH, Pabst MJ, Kakoby WB (1974) Glutathione-S-transferase. J Biol Chem 248:7130–7139Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Halliwell B (1996) Oxidative stress, nutrition and health. Experimental strategies for optimization of nutritional anti-oxidant intake in humans. Free Radic Res 25:57–74Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hans CP, Chaudhary DP, Bansal DD (2002) Magnesium deficiency increases oxidative stress in rats. Ind J Exp Biol 40:1275–1279Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hollenbeck CB, Coulston AM, Reaven GM (1986) Glycemic effects of carbohydrates: a different perspective. Diabetes Care 9:641–647Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hsu JM, Smith JC, Yunice AA, Kepford G (1983) Impairment of ascorbic acid synthesis in liver extracts of magnesium deficient rats. J Nutr 113:2041–2047Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kono Y (1978) Generation of superoxide radicals during autoxidation of hydroxylamine an assay for superoxide dismutase. Arch Biochem Biophys 186:189–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Koster JF, Biemond P, Swaak AJ (1986) Intracellular and extracellular sulfhydryl levels in rheumatoid arthritis. Annu Rheum Dis 45:44–46Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Levi BC, Bermer MJ (1998) Long term fructose consumption accelerate glycation and several age related variables in male rats. J Nutr 128:1442–1449Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Luck H (1971) In: Bergmeyer HU (ed) Methods in enzymatic analysis, vol III. Academic Press, New York, pp 279Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Martinek RG (1964) Methods for estimation of vitamin E (α-tocopherol) in serum. Clin Chem 10:1078–1086Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    McDonald RB (1995) Influence of dietary sucrose on biological ageing. Am J Clin Nutr 62:284S–293SGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Minnich V, Smith MB, Braur MJ, Majerus PW (1971) Glutathione biosynthesis in human erythrocytes. Identification of the enzymes of glutathione synthesis in hemolysates. J Clin Invest 50:567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rayssiguier Y, Durlach J, Gueux E, Rock E, Mazur A (1993) Magnesium and ageing. 1 Experimental data; importance of oxidative damage. Magnesium Res 6:369–378Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rayssiguier Y, Gueux E, Bussiere L, Mazur A (1993) Copper deficiency increases the susceptibility of lipoproteins and tissues to peroxidation in rats. J Nutr 123:1343–1348Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rayssiguier Y, Gueux E, Wieser D (1981) Effect of magnesium deficiency on lipid metabolism in rats fed a high carbohydrate diet. J Nutr 111:1876–1883Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Reiser S, Michaelis OV, Putney J, Hallfrisch J (1975) Effect of sucrose feeding on intestinal transport of sugars in two strains of rats. J Nutr 105:894–905Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rice-Evans CA, Diplack AT, Symons MCR (1991) In: Burden RH, van Knippenber PH (eds) Amsterdam, ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Roe RC, Kuether D (1943) Determination of ascorbic acid in whole blood and urine through the 2,4-dinitrophenyhydrazine derivatives of dehydroascorbic acid. J Biol Chem 147:399–407Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rosan GM, Pou S, Ramos CL, Cohen MS, Britigan BE (1995) Free radicals and phagocytic cells. FASEB J 9:200–209Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sohal RS, Weindruch R (1996) Oxidative stress, caloric restrictions and ageing. Science 273:59–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Stafford RE, Mak IT, Kramer JH, Weglicki WB (1993) Protein oxidation in magnesium deficient rat brain and kidney. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 196:596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Szezeklik A, Gryglewski RJ, Demagala R, Dworski R, Basista M (1985) Dietary supplementation with vitamin E in hyperlipopropteinemias; effect on plasma lipid peroxides, antioxidant activity, prostacyclin generation and platelet aggregability. Thromb Haemost 54:425–430Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Thefeld W, et al. (1973) DTSCH. Medws chr 98380Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Thomas SR, Neuzil J, Mohar D, Stocker R (1995) Restoration of tocopherol by co-incubation makes (-tocopherol an effective anti-oxidant for low density lipoproteins. Am J Clin Nutr 62:S1357Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Thuvasethakul P, Wajjwalku W (1987) Serum magnesium determined by use of methyl thymol blue. Clin Chem 33:614–615Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Weglicki WB, Mak IT, Kramer JH, Dickens BF, Cassidy KK, Stafford RE, Philips TM (1996) Role of free radicals and substance P in magnesium deficiency. Cardiovasc Res 31:677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wolf SP, Dean RT (1987) Glucose auto-oxidation and protein modification. The potential role of anti-oxidation glycosylation in diabetes. Biochem J 245:243–250Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Yagi K (1987) Lipid peroxides in human diseases. Chem Phys Lipids 45:337–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Spinger 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dharam P. Chaudhary
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ravneet K. Boparai
    • 1
  • Devi D. Bansal
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of BiochemistryPanjab UniversityChandigharIndia
  2. 2.Dept. of Plant Breeding Genetics & BiotechnologyPanjab Agricultural UniversityLudhianaIndia

Personalised recommendations