European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 46, Issue 6, pp 354–363 | Cite as

No influence of increased intake of orange and blackcurrant juices and dietary amounts of vitamin E on paraoxonase-1 activity in patients with peripheral arterial disease

  • Christine Dalgård
  • Lene Christiansen
  • Torbjörn Jonung
  • Michael I. Mackness
  • Moniek P.M. de Maat
  • Mogens Hørder



Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is an antioxidative enzyme associated with HDL and its serum activity is associated with risk of cardiovascular disease. The interindividual variation in PON1 activity is partly determined by genetic factors, such as polymorphisms in the PON1 gene, but also by dietary factors like the antioxidants.

Aim of the study

We examined the effect of antioxidant-rich orange and blackcurrant juices and vitamin E supplement on PON1 activity in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Furthermore, we studied whether genetic polymorphisms in the PON1 gene predicted the change in PON1 activity.


The study was designed as a cross-over trial with 48 participants who received two of the four possible treatments: (1) 250 ml orange juice and 250 ml blackcurrant juice; (2) 15 mg vitamin E; (3) 250 ml orange juice and 250 ml blackcurrant juice and 15 mg vitamin E; or (4) control/placebo (energy-equivalent sugar-containing beverage). The treatments were given for 28 days, separated by a 4-week wash-out period.


The PON1 activity was not affected by juice or vitamin E supplement neither was there evidence of synergetic effects. However, a statistically significant interaction was observed between treatment and PON1 genotype, such that PON1 activity increased after juice alone in patients carrying the PON1 L55-allele. Results need to be interpreted with care since the study population was relatively small.


Consumption of orange and blackcurrant juice and vitamin E supplement does not affect the activity of PON1 in patients with peripheral arterial disease. However, a gene-diet interaction may be present.


PON1 orange juice blackcurrant juice vitamin E oxidative stress F2-isoprostanes 



We thank Matt Wright (Manchester Royal Infirmary) for helpful and kind assistance in the laboratory and K. Overgaard, A. Larsen, A. Nørregård, A. Mains, and C. Skoubo for skilful technical assistance. Dr. J. Morrow (Nashville University Medical Center) kindly provided the F2-isoprostane analyses. Dr. W. Vach (University of Southern Denmark) is thanked for statistical assistance. Furthermore, Dr. N. Rohr (Odense University Hospital) identified the patients from the Odense Registry for which he is thanked. The study was supported by The Regional Institute for Health Sciences and the Institute of Clinical Research at University of Southern Denmark; The Counties of Ribe and Funen; the Foundation of Carpenter A. Andersen and Wife; and the Foundation of Sawmill owner Jeppe Juhl and Wife. Measures of vitamin C concentration in the juice were kindly provided by Rynkeby A/S, Denmark.


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Copyright information

© Spinger 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christine Dalgård
    • 1
  • Lene Christiansen
    • 2
    • 3
  • Torbjörn Jonung
    • 4
    • 5
  • Michael I. Mackness
    • 6
  • Moniek P.M. de Maat
    • 7
    • 8
  • Mogens Hørder
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Public Health, Environmental MedicineUniversity of Southern DenmarkOdense CDenmark
  2. 2.Dept. of Biochemistry, Pharmacology and GeneticsOdense University HospitalOdenseDenmark
  3. 3.Institute of Public Health-EpidemiologyUniversity of Southern DenmarkOdenseDenmark
  4. 4.Dept. of Vascular SurgeryRibe County HospitalEsbjergDenmark
  5. 5.Institute of Surgical SciencesUniversity of BergenBergenNorway
  6. 6.University Dept. of MedicineManchester Royal InfirmaryManchesterUK
  7. 7.Dept. of Thrombosis ResearchUniversity of Southern DenmarkEsbjergDenmark
  8. 8.Dept. of HematologyErasmus MCRotterdamThe Netherlands

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