Advertisement

European Journal of Nutrition

, Volume 46, Issue 5, pp 293–299 | Cite as

B vitamins deficiency and decreased anti-oxidative state in patients with liver cancer

  • Chun-che Lin
  • Mei-chin Yin
ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION

Abstract

Background

This study examined the status of oxidative stress and B vitamins in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients in different tumor-node-metastasis stages. Patients were divided into two groups as I + II (n = 21) and III  + IV (n = 19).

Methods

Plasma levels of lipid oxidation, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, vitamin C, glutathione and the activity of antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and xanthine oxidase) were determined for evaluating oxidative status. Blood B vitamins (B1, B2, B6, B12, and folate) and serum ghrelin were analyzed, and the relationship between serum ghrelin and vitamins B2 (or B6) was evaluated.

Results

HCC patients at III  + IV stage showed significantly lower ghrelin, higher cholesterol, triglyceride, and uric acid than patients at I + II stage and healthy subjects (< 0.05). Plasma lipid oxidation level in HCC patients was significantly greater than healthy subjects (< 0.05). The activity of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase or catalase was significantly decreased, but xanthine oxidase activity was significantly elevated in HCC patients (< 0.05). Plasma level of glutathione and vitamin C, not α-tocopherol and β-carotene, in HCC patients was significantly lower (< 0.05). Vitamins B2 and B6 levels in red blood cells from these HCC patients were significantly lower (< 0.05).

Conclusion

This study provided novel clinical findings regarding the status of oxidative stress and B vitamins in HCC patients. Plasma glutathione level may be a proper biomarker for evaluating oxidative status for HCC patients. Our data indicate that HCC patients might need B vitamins supplementation. The increased serum level of triglyceride and cholesterol might be a consequence of an impaired hepatic fat metabolism, and might be improved by a lower fat administration to these patients.

Keywords

hepatocellular carcinoma oxidative stress B vitamins glutathione ghrelin 

References

  1. 1.
    El-Serag HB (2002) Hepatocellular carcinoma: an epidemiologic view. J Clin Gastroenterol 35:S72–S78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fordy C, Glover C, Henderson DC, Summerbell C, Wharton R, Allen-Mersh TG (1999) Contribution of diet, tumour volume and patient-related factors to weight loss in patients with colorectal liver metastases. Br J Surg 86:639–644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baracos VE (2002) Hypercatabolism and hypermetabolism in wasting states. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 5:237–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Vissers YL, Dejong CH, Luiking YC, Fearon KC, von Meyenfeldt MF, Deutz NE (2005) Plasma arginine concentrations are reduced in cancer patients: evidence for arginine deficiency? Am J Clin Nutr 81:1142–1146Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ockner RK, Kaikaus RM, Bass NM (1993) Fatty-acid metabolism and the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma: review and hypothesis. Hepatology 18:669–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Marnett LJ (1999) Lipid peroxidation––DNA damage by malondialdehyde. Mutat Res 424:83–95Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wu JT, Kral JG (2004) Ghrelin: integrative neuroendocrine peptide in health and disease. Ann Surg 239:464–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shimizu Y, Nagaya N, Isobe T, Imazu M, Okumura H, Hosoda H, Kojima M, Kangawa K, Kohno N (2003) Increased plasma ghrelin level in lung cancer cachexia. Clin Cancer Res 9:774–778Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Department of Health (1998) Taiwan nutrient databases 1998. Department of Health, Executive Yuan, Taipei, TaiwanGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Talwar D, Ha T, Cooney J, Cooney J, Brownlee C, O’Reilly DS (1998) A routine method for the simultaneous measurement of retinol, α-tocopherol and five carotenoids in human plasma by reverse phase HPLC. Clin Chim Acta 270:85–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zannoni V, Lynch M, Goldstein S, Sato P (1974) A rapid micromethod for the determination of ascorbic acid in plasma and tissues. Biochem Med 11:41–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Prajda N, Weber G (1975) Malignant transformation-linked imbalance: decreased XO activity in hepatomas. FEBS Lett 59:245–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jain SK, Palmer M (1997) The effect of oxygen radical metabolites and vitamin E on glycosylation or proteins. Free Radic Biol Med 22:593–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Talwar D, Davidson H, Cooney J, St JO’Reilly D (2000) Vitamin B (1) status assessed by direct measurement of thiamin pyrophosphate in erythrocytes or whole blood by HPLC: comparison with erythrocyte transketolase activation assay. Clin Chem 46:704–710Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Speek AJ, van Schaik F, Schrijver J, Schreurs WH (1982) Determination of the B2 vitamer flavin—adenine dinucleotide in whole blood by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection. J Chromatogr 228:311–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Talwar D, Quasim T, McMillan DC, Kinsella J, Williamson C, O’Reilly DS (2003) Optimisation and validation of a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography assay for routine measurement of pyridoxal 5-phosphate in human plasma and red cells using pre-column semicarbazide derivatisation. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed 792:333–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Castaldo G, Oriani G, Lofrano MM, Cimino L, Topa M, Budillon G, Salvatore F, Sacchetti L (1996) Differential diagnosis between hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis through a discriminant function based on results for serum analytes. Clin Chem 42:1263–1269Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fujiwara Y, Takenaka K, Kajiyama K, Maeda T, Gion T, Shirabe K, Shimada M, Sugimachi K (1997) The characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma with a high level of serum lactic dehydrogenase: a case report. Hepatogastroenterology 44:820–823Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sakaida I, Kimura T, Yamasaki T, Fukumoto Y, Watanabe K, Aoyama M, Okita K (2005) Cytochrome c is a possible new marker for fulminant hepatitis in humans. J Gastroenterol 40:179–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Alsabti EA (1979) Serum lipids in hepatoma. Oncology 36:11–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ahaneku JE, Taylor GO, Olubuyide IO, Agbedana EO (1992) Abnormal lipid and lipoprotein patterns in liver cirrhosis with and without hepatocellular carcinoma. J Pak Med Assoc 42:260–263Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cicognani C, Malavolti M, Morselli-Labate AM, Zamboni L, Sama C, Barbara L (1997) Serum lipid and lipoprotein patterns in patients with liver cirrhosis and chronic active hepatitis. Arch Intern Med 157:792–796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jiang J, Nilsson-Ehle P, Xu N (2006) Influence of liver cancer on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Lipids Health Dis 5:4–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fabiani R, De Bartolomeo A, Rosignoli P, Morozzi G (2001) Antioxidants prevent the lymphocyte DNA damage induced by PMA-stimulated monocytes. Nutr Cancer 39:284–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mooney LA, Madsen AM, Tang D, Orjuela MA, Tsai WY, Garduno ER, Perera FP (2005) Antioxidant vitamin supplementation reduces benzo(a)pyrene-DNA adducts and potential cancer risk in female smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14:237–242Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Michaud DS, Pietinen P, Taylor PR, Virtanen M, Virtamo J, Albanes D (2002) Intakes of fruits and vegetables, carotenoids and vitamins A, E, C in relation to the risk of bladder cancer in the ATBC cohort study. Br J Cancer 87:960–965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Huang HY, Alberg AJ, Norkus EP, Hoffman SC, Comstock GW, Helzlsouer KJ (2003) Prospective study of antioxidant micronutrients in the blood and the risk of developing prostate cancer. Am J Epidemiol 157:335–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rivlin RS (1986) Riboflavin. Adv Exp Med Biol 206:349–355Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    McGowan C (1989) Influence of vitamin B6 status on aspects of lead poisoning in rats. Toxicol Lett 47:87–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zhou YC, Zheng RL (1991) Phenolic compounds and an analog as superoxide anion scavengers and antioxidants. Biochem Pharmacol 42:1177–1179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ksendzova GA, Sorokin VL, Edimecheva IP, Shadyro QI (2004) Reactions of arylamine and aminophenol derivatives, and riboflavin with organic radicals. Free Radic Res 38:1183–1190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Matsubara K, Komatsu S, Oka T, Kato N (2003) Vitamin B6-mediated suppression of colon tumorigenesis, cell proliferation, and angiogenesis. J Nutr Biochem 14:246–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mizushina Y, Xu X, Matsubara K, Murakami C, Kuriyama I, Oshige M, Takemura M, Kato N, Yoshida H, Sakaguchi K (2003) Pyridoxal 5′-phosphate is a selective inhibitor in vivo of DNA polymerase alpha and epsilon. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 312:1025–1032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Tschop M, Smiley DL, Heiman ML (2000) Ghrelin induces adiposity in rodents. Nature 407:908–913CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Spinger 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dept. of Internal MedicineChung Shan Medical University HospitalTaichungTaiwan, ROC
  2. 2.Dept. of NutritionChina Medical UniversityTaichungTaiwan, ROC

Personalised recommendations