Improved iron bioavailability in an oat-based beverage: the combined effect of citric acid addition, dephytinization and iron supplementation
- 395 Downloads
Iron deficiency in children is a major worldwide nutritional problem. An oat beverage was developed for 1- to 3-year-old children and different treatments were used to improve the iron bioavailability.
Aim of the study
To investigate the effects of citric acid addition, phytase treatment and supplementation with different iron compounds on non-heme iron absorption in human from a mineral-supplemented oat-based beverage.
A 240 g portion of a 55Fe-labeled test product (T) or a 59Fe-labeled reference dose (R) was served as breakfast after overnight fasting on four consecutive days in the order of TRRT. On day 18 the retention of 59Fe was measured by a whole-body counter and the erythrocytes uptake of 55Fe and 59Fe by a liquid-scintillation counter. Forty-two healthy subjects (men and women) were randomized into four study groups, members of each being given one of the studied four products (A, B, C, and D) supplemented with Fe (1.3 mg/portion), Zn, Ca, Se and P. Ferric ammonium citrate (FeAC) was added to products A, B, and C and ferric pyrophosphate (FePP) to product D. Citric acid (60 mg/portion) was added to products B, C, and D and phytase treatment applied to products C and D.
Citric acid improved iron absorption by 54% from 3.9% in product A to 6.0% in product B (p = 0.051). Phytase treatment increased iron absorption by 78% (from 6.0 to 10.7%, p = 0.003) by reducing the phytate-phosphorus content per portion from 16.3 mg in product B to 2.8 mg in product C. The two compounds gave similar iron absorption rates (p = 0.916).
A combination of citric acid addition, dephytinization and iron supplementation significantly increased the iron absorption in an oat-based beverage. Such a beverage can be useful in the prevention of iron deficiency in 1- to 3-year-old children.
Keywordsiron absorption iron supplementation phytase citric acid adults
This work was supported by CEBA Foods AB, Sweden. We thank all subjects for their cooperation; Angie Öste Triantafyllou for enzyme preparation and Benny Wraae for the production of the studied products.
- 1.UNICEF/UNU/WHO/MI (1998) Technical Workshop Preventing iron Deficiency in Women and Children: Background and Consensus on Key Technical issues and Resources for Advocacy, Planning, and Implementing National Programmes. UNICEF, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
- 2.WHO/UNICEF/UNU (2001) Iron deficiency anaemia: assessment, prevention, and control. Geneva, World Health Organization. (WHO/NHD/01.3), pp 15–17Google Scholar
- 3.Cook JD, Skikne BS, Baynes RD (1994) Iron deficiency: the global perspective. Adv Exp Med Biol 356:219–228Google Scholar
- 4.Hurrell RF (1999) Iron. In: Hurrell RF (ed) The mineral fortification of foods. Leatherhead Publishing. Surrey, UK, pp 54–93Google Scholar
- 5.Hurrell RF (2002) Fortification: overcoming technical and practical barriers. J Nutr 132 (suppl):806–812Google Scholar
- 6.Rossander-Hulthén L, Gleerup A, Hallberg L (1990) Inhibitory effect of oat products on non-haem iron absorption in man. Eur J Clin Nutr 44:783–791Google Scholar
- 7.Reddy NR (2002) Occurrence, distribution, content and dietary intake of phytate. In: Reddy NR, Sathe SK (eds) Food Phytates. London, UK: CRC Press, pp 30–32Google Scholar
- 8.Sandstrom B, Almgren A, Kivisto B, Cederblad A (1987) Zinc absorption in humans from meals based on rye, barley, oatmeal, triticale and whole wheat. J Nutr 117(11):1898–1902Google Scholar
- 9.Hallberg L, Brune M, Rossander L (1989) Iron absorption in man: ascorbic acid and dose-dependent inhibition by phytate. Am J Clin Nutr 49 (1):140–144Google Scholar
- 10.Fretzdorff B (1992) Phytic acid in cereals - current status and possibilities of their reduction. Getreide, Mehl und Brot 46(6):180–185Google Scholar
- 11.Hurrell RF, Reddy MB, Juillerat MA, Cook JD (2003) Degradation of phytic acid in cereal porridges improves iron absorption by human subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 77(5):1213–1219Google Scholar
- 17.Hallberg L (1980) Food iron absorption. In: Cook JD (ed) Methods in hematology. London: Churchill Livingstone, pp 116–133Google Scholar
- 20.Magnusson B, Björn-Rasmussen E, Hallberg L, Rossander L (1981) Iron absorption in relation to iron status: model proposed to express results to food iron absorption measurements. Scand J Haematol 27:208–210Google Scholar
- 21.Harland BF, Oberleas D (1977) A modified method for phytate analysis using an ion-exchange procedure: application to textured vegetable proteins. Cereal Chem 54(4):827–832Google Scholar
- 23.Rossander L, Sandberg A-S, Sandström B (1992) The influence of dietary fibre on mineral absorption and utilization. In: Schweizer TF, Edwards CA (eds) Dietary fibre - a component of food. Nutritional function in health and disease. Springer-Verlag, pp 198–214Google Scholar
- 24.Sandberg AS, Brune M, Carlsson NG, Hallberg L, Skoglund E, Rossander-Hulthen L (1999) Inositol phosphates with different numbers of phosphate groups influence iron absorption in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 70:240–246Google Scholar
- 26.Davidsson L, Galan P, Cherouvrier F, kastenmayer P, Juillerat MA, Hercberg S, Hurrell RF (1997) Bioavailability in infants of iron from infant cereals: effect of dephytinization. Am J Clin Nutr 65:916–920Google Scholar
- 27.Richardson DP (1983) Iron fortification of foods and drinks. Chem Ind 13:498–501Google Scholar
- 28.Schulz L (2005) Iron (III) pyrophosphate (P6526, Lot 022K0163). In Sigma-Aldrich Certificate of Analysis. St. Louis, Missouri USAGoogle Scholar
- 30.Davidsson L, Kastenmayer P, Szajewska H, Hurrell RF, Barclay D (2000) Iron bioavailability in infants from an infant cereal fortified with ferric pyrophosphate or ferrous fumarate. Am J Clin Nutr 71(6):1597–1602Google Scholar
- 33.Zimmermann MB, Wegmueller R, Zeder C, Chaouki N, Rohner F, Saissi M,Torresani T, Hurrell RF (2004) Dual fortification of salt with iodine and micronized ferric pyrophosphate: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 80(4):952–959Google Scholar
- 35.Layrisse M, Martinez-Torres C, Renzi M (1976) Sugar as a vehicle for iron fortification: further studies. Am J Clin Nutr 29(3):274–279Google Scholar
- 37.Gonzalez H, Mendoza C, Viteri FE (2001) Absorption of unlabeled reduced iron of small particle size from a commercial source. A method to predict absorption of unlabeled iron compounds in humans. Arch Latinoam Nutr 51:217–224Google Scholar
- 38.Hahn PF, Jones E, Lowe RC, Meneely GR, Peacock WE (1945) The relative absorption and utilization of ferrous and ferric iron in anemia as determined with the radioactive isotope. Am J Physiol 143:191–202Google Scholar
- 40.Hallberg L, Rossander L (1984) Improvement of iron nutrition in developing countries: comparison of adding meat, soy protein, ascorbic acid, citric acid, and ferrous sulphate on iron absorption from a simple Latin American-type of meal. Am J Clin Nutr 39:577–583Google Scholar
- 41.National Research Council (1989) Recommended dietary allowance. 10th. edn. Washington, D.C: National Academy PressGoogle Scholar
- 42.Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (1996) Scand J Nutr 40:161–165Google Scholar
- 43.Statens livsmedelsverks föreskrifter om livsmedel för speciella medicinska ändamål (SLVFS) (Swedish Food Agency Regulation on foods for special medical uses) (2000):15 (H377)Google Scholar
- 44.Livsmedelsverkets föreskrifter om berikningsmedel i livsmedel för särskilda näringsändamål. LIVSFS (Swedish Food Agency Regulation on Food Supplements for special dietary uses) (2002):18 (H378)Google Scholar
- 45.Hallberg L, Brune M, Erlandsson M, Sandberg AS, Rossander-Hulten L (1991) Calcium: effect of different amounts on nonheme- and heme-iron absorption in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 53(1):112–119Google Scholar
- 46.Lönnerdal B (2000) Dietary factors influencing zinc absorption. J Nutr 130(suppl):1378–1383Google Scholar
- 47.Rossander-Hulthén L, Brune M, Sandström B, Lönnerdal B, Hallberg L (1991) Competitive inhibition of iron absorption by manganese and zinc in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 54:152–156Google Scholar
- 48.Fairweather-Tait SJ, Wharf SG, Fox SE (1995) Zinc absorption in infants fed iron-fortified weaning food. Am J Clin Nutr 62:785–789Google Scholar
- 50.FAO/WHO Report (2002) Human vitamin and mineral requirements. Report of a joint FAO/WHO expert consultation, Bangkok, ThailandGoogle Scholar
- 52.Brune M, Rossander L, Hallberg L (1989) Iron absorption: no intestinal adaptation to a high-phytate diet. Am J Clin Nutr 49(3):542–545Google Scholar