Antioxidant effectiveness of organically and non-organically grown red oranges in cell culture systems
- 395 Downloads
Consumers consider plant food products from organic origin healthier than the corresponding conventional plant foods. Clear experimental evidence supporting this assumption is still lacking.
Aim of the study
To determine if the organic red oranges have a higher phyto–chemical content (i. e., phenolics, anthocyanins and ascorbic acid), total antioxidant activity and in vitro bioactivity, in terms of protective effect against oxidative damage at cellular level, than nonorganic red oranges.
Total phenolics were measured using the Folin Ciocalteau assay, while total anthocyanins and ascorbic acid levels were determined by spectrophotometric and HPLC analysis, respectively. In addition, the total antioxidant activity of red orange extracts was measured by the ABTS•+ test. The ability of red orange extracts to counteract conjugated diene containing lipids and free radical production in cultured rat cardiomyocytes and differentiated Caco–2 cells, respectively, was assessed.
Organic oranges had significantly higher total phenolics, total anthocyanins and ascorbic acid levels than the corresponding non–organic oranges (all p < 0.05). Moreover, the organic orange extracts had a higher total antioxidant activity than non–organic orange extracts (p < 0.05). In addition, our results indicate that red oranges have a strong capacity of inhibiting the production of conjugated diene containing lipids and free radicals in rat cardiomyocytes and differentiated Caco–2 cells, respectively. Statistically higher levels of antioxidant activity in both cell models were found in organically grown oranges as compared to those produced by integrated agriculture practice.
Our results clearly show that organic red oranges have a higher phytochemical content (i. e., phenolics, anthocyanins and ascorbic acid), total antioxidant activity and bioactivity than integrated red oranges. Further studies are needed to confirm whether the organic agriculture practice is likely to increase the antioxidant activity of other varieties of fruits and vegetables.
Key wordsred orange integrated agriculture organic agriculture phenolics antioxidant activity
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Greene CUS (2000) Organic agriculture gaining ground. Agric Outlook 270:9–14Google Scholar
- 2.Hamm U, Michelsen J (2000) In: Adolfi T, Lockeretz W, Niggli U (eds) IFOAM 2000 – The world Groes Organic. Proc. 13th Int. IFOAM Scientific Conf. IOS, Zurich, pp 507–510Google Scholar
- 4.Daniel O, Meier MS, Schlatter J, Frischknecht P (1999) Selected phenolic compounds in cultivated plants: ecologic functions, health implications, and modulation by pesticides. Environ Health Perspect 107:109–114Google Scholar
- 6.Sansavini S (1997) Integrated fruit production in Europe: Research and strategies for a sustainable industry. Sci Hort 68:25–36Google Scholar
- 8.Rice–Evans CA, Miller NJ, Pagana G (1996) Structure–antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Free Radic Biol Med 20:933–956Google Scholar
- 9.Maccarone E, Maccarone A, Rapisarda P (1985) Acylated anthocyanins from oranges. Ann Chim 75:79–86Google Scholar
- 10.Maccarone E, Rapisarda P, Fanella F, Arena E, Mondello L (1998) Cyanidin– 3–(6”–malonyl)–beta–glucoside. One of the major anthocyanins in blood orange juice. It J Food Sci 10:367–372Google Scholar
- 15.Bordoni A, Hrelia S, Angeloni C, Giordano E, Guarnieri C, Caldarera CM, Biagi PL (2002) Green tea protection of hypoxia/reoxygenation injury in cultured cardiac cells. J Nutr Biochem 13:103–111Google Scholar
- 16.Hidalgo IJ, Raub TJ, Borchardt RT (1989) Characterization of the human colon carcinoma cell line (Caco–2) as a model system for intestinal epithelial permeability. Gastroenterology 96:736–749Google Scholar
- 18.Tarozzi A, Marchesi A, Cantelli–Forti G, Hrelia P (2004) Cold–storage affects antioxidant properties of apples in Caco–2 cells. J Nutr 134:1105–1109Google Scholar
- 19.Sun J, Chu YF, Wu X, Liu RH (2002) Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common fruits. J Agric Food Chem 50:7449–7454Google Scholar
- 20.Singleton VL, Orthofer R, Lamuela– Raventos RM (1999) Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin– Ciocalteu reagent. Methods Enzymol 299:152–178Google Scholar
- 22.Lee HS, Chen CS (1998) Rates of Vitamin C loss and discoloration in clear orange juice concentrate during storage at temperature of 4–24 °C. J Agric Food Chem 46:4723–4727Google Scholar
- 26.Burton KP, McCord JM, Ghay G (1984) Myocardial alterations due to free radical generation. Am J Physiol 246:H776–H783Google Scholar
- 27.Wang H, Joseph JA (1999) Quantifying cellular oxidative stress by dichlorofluorescein assay using microplate reader. Free Radic Biol Med 27:612–616 Google Scholar
- 30.Lattanzio V, DeCicco V, Di Venere D, Lima G, Salerno M (1994) Antifungal activity of phenolics against fungi commonly encountered during storage. It J Food Sci 1:23–30Google Scholar
- 32.USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, release 14 (2001) Nutrient Data Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center: Beltsville, MDGoogle Scholar
- 33.Rapisarda P, Bellomo SE, Intrigliolo F (1992) Anthocyanin level in Italian blood oranges. Proc Int Soc Citric 3:1130–1133Google Scholar
- 35.Wang H, Cao G, Prior R (1996) Total antioxidant capacity of fruits. J Agric Food Chem 44:701–705Google Scholar
- 36.Rice–Evans C, Miller NJ (1994) Total antioxidant status in plasma and body fluids. Methods Enzymol 234:279–293Google Scholar
- 38.Fisher BE (1999) Organic: What's in a name? Environ Health Perspect 107: A150–A153Google Scholar
- 39.Schmidt CW (1999) An all–consuming issue. Environ Health Perspect 107:A144–A149Google Scholar
- 40.Caris–Veyrat C, Amiot MJ, Tyssandier V, Grasselly D, Buret M, Mikolajczak M, Guilland JC, Bouteloup–Demange C, Borel P (2004) Influence of organic versus conventional agricultural practice on the antioxidant microconstituent content of tomatoes and derived purees; consequences on antioxidant plasma status in humans. J Agric Food Chem 52:6503–6509Google Scholar